If the pop-up is blocked, click here for the BaCon Documentation Navigator


BaCon BASIC converter documentation - version 3.5


Contents

Introduction
BaCon usage and parameters
General syntax
Mathematics, variables
Equations
Indexed arrays
    Declaration of static arrays
    Declaration of dynamic arrays
    Dimensions
    Passing arrays to functions or subs
    Returning arrays from functions
Associative arrays
    Declaration
    Relations, lookups, keys
    Basic logic programming
Records
    Declaration
    Arrays of records
    Passing records to functions or subs
    Returning records from functions
Strings by value or by reference
Creating and linking to libraries created with BaCon
    Step 1: create a library
    Step 2: compile the library
    Step 3: copy library to a system path
    Step 4: update linker cache
    Step 5: demonstration program
    Step 6: compile and link
Creating internationalization files
    Step 1: create program
    Step 2: compile program
    Step 3: create catalog file
    Step 4: add translations
    Step 5: create object file
    Step 6: install
    Step 7: setup Unix environment
Networking
Ramdisks and memory streams
Delimited strings
Error trapping, error catching and debugging
Notes on transcompiling
Overview of statements and functions
Appendix A: Runtime error codes
Appendix B: Standard POSIX variables
Appendix C: reserved keywords and functions


Introduction

BaCon is an acronym for BAsic CONverter. The BaCon BASIC converter is a tool to convert programs written in BASIC syntax to C. The resulting C program is compilable using generic C compilers like GCC or CC.

BaCon intends to be a programming aid in creating small tools which can be compiled on different Unix-based platforms. It tries to revive the days of the good old BASIC.

The BaCon converter passes expressions and numeric assignments to the C compiler without verification or modification. Therefore BaCon can be considered a lazy converter: it relies on the expression parser of the C compiler.


BaCon usage and parameters

To use BaCon, download the converter and make sure the program has executable rights. The converter can be used as follows:

    bash ./bacon.sh myprog.bac

By default the converter will refer to '/bin/bash' by itself. It uses a so-called 'shebang' which allows the program to run standalone provided the executable rights are set correctly. This way there is no need to execute BaCon with an explicit use of BASH. So this is valid:

    ./bacon.sh myprog.bac

Alternatively, different versions of Kornshell and Zshell can be used also:

    mksh ./bacon.sh myprog.bac

    pdksh ./bacon.sh myprog.bac

    zsh ./bacon.sh myprog.bac

All BaCon programs should use the '.bac' extension. But it is not necessary to provide this extension for conversion. So BaCon also understands the following syntax:

    ./bacon.sh myprog

Another possibility is to point to the URL of a BaCon program hosted by a website. The program will then be downloaded automatically, after which it is converted:

    ./bacon.sh http://www.basic-converter.org/fetch.bac


The BaCon Basic Converter can be started with the following parameters.


So how to pass compiler and linker flags to the C compiler? Here are a few examples.

Most of the above options also can be used programmatically by use of the PRAGMA keyword.


General syntax

BaCon consists of statements, functions and expressions. Each line should begin with a statement. A line may continue onto the next line by using a space and the '\' symbol at the end of the line. The LET statement may be omitted, so a line may contain an assignment only. Expressions are not converted, but are passed unchanged to the C compiler (lazy conversion).

BaCon does not need line numbers. More statements per line are accepted. These should be separated by the colon symbol ':'.

All keywords must be written in capitals to avoid name clashes with existing C keywords or functions from libc. Keywords in small letters are considered to be variables unless the '-z' command line option is specified, in which case BaCon tries to parse lowercase keywords as if they were written in capitals. Note that this may lead to unexpected results, for example if the program uses variable names which happen to be BaCon keywords.

Statements are always written without using brackets. Functions however must use brackets to enclose their arguments. Functions always return a value or string, contrary to subs. Functions created in the BaCon program can be invoked standalone, meaning that they do not need to appear in an assignment.

Subroutines may be defined using SUB/ENDSUB and do not return a value. With the FUNCTON/ENDFUNCTION statements a function can be defined which does return a value. The return value must be explicitly stated with the statement RETURN.

The three main variable types in BaCon are defined as STRING, NUMBER and FLOATING. These are translated to char*, long and double.

A variable will be declared implicitly when the variable is used in an assignment (e.g. LET) or in a statement which assigns a value to a variable. By default, implicitly declared variables are of 'long' type. This default can be changed by using the OPTION VARTYPE statement. Note that implicitly declared variables always have a global scope, meaning that they are visible to all functions and routines in the whole program. Variables which are used and implicitly declared within a SUB or FUNCTION also by default have a global scope. When declared with the LOCAL statement variables will have a scope local to the FUNCTION or SUB.

In case of implicit assignments, BaCon assumes numeric variables to be of long type, unless specified otherwise with OPTION VARTYPE. Also, it is possible to define a variable to any other C-type explicitly using the DECLARE and LOCAL statements.

Next to this, BaCon accepts type suffixes as well. For example, if a variable name ends with the '$' symbol, a string variable is assumed. If a variable name ends with the '#' symbol, a float variable is assumed. If a variable name ends with the '%' symbol, it is considered to be an integer variable. The type suffixes also can be used when defining a function name.


Mathematics, variables

The standard C operators for mathematics can be used, like '+' for addition, '-' for subtraction, '/' for division and '*' for multiplication. For the binary 'and', the '&' symbol must be used, and for the binary 'or' use the pipe symbol '|'. Binary shifts are possible with '>>' and '<<'.


C operator

Meaning

C Operator

Meaning

+

Addition

|

Inclusive or

-

Subtraction

^

Exclusive or

*

Multiplication

>>

Binary shift right

/

Division

<<

Binary shift left

&

Binary and

+=, -=, *=, /=

Invalid in BaCon

The C operators '+=', '-=' and the like are not valid in BaCon. Use INCR or DECR instead.

Variable names may be of any length but may not start with a number or an underscore symbol.


Equations

Equations are used in statements like IF...THEN, WHILE...WEND, and REPEAT...UNTIL. In BaCon the following symbols for equations can be used:


Symbol

Meaning

Type

=, ==

Equal to

String, numeric

!=, <>

Not equal to

String, numeric

>

Greater than

String, numeric also allows GT

<

Less than

String, numeric also allows LT

>=

Greater or equal

String, numeric also allows GE

<=

Less or equal

String, numeric also allows LE

EQ, IS

Equal to

Numeric

NE, ISNOT

Not equal to

Numeric

EQUAL()

Equal to

String


Indexed arrays

Declaration of static arrays

An array will never be declared implicitly by BaCon, so arrays must be declared explicitly. This can be done by using the keyword GLOBAL or DECLARE for arrays which should be globally visible, or LOCAL for local array variables.

Arrays must be declared in the C syntax, using square brackets for each dimension. For example, a local string array must be declared like this: 'LOCAL array$[5]'. Two-dimensional arrays are written like 'array[5][5]', three-dimensional arrays like 'array[5][5][5]' and so on.

In BaCon, static numeric arrays can have all dimensions, but static string arrays cannot have more than one dimension.

Declaration of dynamic arrays

Also dynamic arrays must be declared explicitly. To declare a dynamic array, the statements GLOBAL or LOCAL must be used together with the ARRAY keyword, which determines the amount of elements. For example, to declare a dynamic array of 5 integer elements: 'LOCAL array TYPE int ARRAY 5'.

The difference with a static array is that the size of a dynamic array can declared using variables, and that their size can be redimensioned during runtime. The latter can be achieved with the REDIM statement. This is only possible for arrays with one dimension.

As with static numeric arrays, also dynamic numeric arrays can have all dimensions, and dynamic string arrays cannot have more than one dimension. The syntax to refer to elements in a dynamic array is the same as the syntax for elements in a static array.

Dimensions

Static arrays must be declared with fixed dimensions, meaning that it is not possible to determine the dimensions of an array using variables or functions, so during program runtime. The reason for this is that the C compiler needs to know the array dimensions during compile time. Therefore the dimensions of an array must be defined with fixed numbers or with CONST definitions. Also, the size of a static array cannot be changed afterwards.

Dynamic arrays however can be declared with variable dimensions, meaning that the size of such an array also can be expressed by a variable. Furthermore, the size of a one dimensional dynamic array can be changed afterwards with the REDIM statement. This statement also works for implicitly created dynamic arrays in the SPLIT and LOOKUP statements.

By default, if an array is declared with 5 elements, then it means that the array elements range from 0 to 4. Element 5 is not part of the array. This behavior can be changed using the OPTION BASE statement. If OPTION BASE is set to 1, an array declared with 5 elements will have a range from 1 to 5.

Passing arrays to functions or subs

In BaCon it is possible to pass one-dimensional arrays to a function or sub. The caller should simply use the basename of the array (so without mentioning the dimension of the array).

When the function or sub argument mentions the dimension, a local copy of the array is created.

CONST dim = 2
DECLARE series[dim] TYPE NUMBER

SUB demo(NUMBER array[dim])
    array[
0] = 987
    array[
1] = 654
END SUB

series[0] = 123
series[
1] = 456
demo(series)
FOR x = 0 TO dim - 1
    
PRINT series[x]
NEXT

This will print the values originally assigned. The sub does not change the original assignments.

When the function or sub argument does not mention the dimension, but only uses square brackets, the array is passed by reference.

CONST dim = 2
DECLARE series[dim] TYPE NUMBER

SUB demo(NUMBER array[])
    array[
0] = 987
    array[
1] = 654
END SUB

series[0] = 123
series[
1] = 456
demo(series)
FOR x = 0 TO dim - 1
    
PRINT series[x]
NEXT

This will modify the original array and prints the values assigned in the sub.

Returning arrays from functions

In BaCon it is also possible to return a one dimensional array from a function. This can only be done with dynamic arrays, as the static arrays always use the stack memory assigned to a function. This means, that when a function is finished, also the memory for that function is destroyed, together with the variables and static arrays in that function. Therefore only dynamic arrays can be returned.

The syntax to return a one dimensional dynamic array involves two steps: the declaration of the array must contain the STATIC keyword, and the RETURN argument should only contain the basename of the array without mentioning the dimensions. For example:

FUNCTION demo
    
LOCAL array TYPE int ARRAY 10 STATIC
    
FOR x = 0 TO 9
        array[x] = x
    
NEXT
    
RETURN array
END FUNCTION
DECLARE
my_array TYPE int ARRAY 10
my_array = demo()

This example will create a dynamic array and assign some initial values, after which it is returned from the function. The target 'my_array' now will contain the values assigned in the function.

The statements SPLIT, LOOKUP and MAP also accept the STATIC keyword, which allows the implicitly created dynamic array containing results to be returned from a function.

Note that when returning arrays, the assigned array should have the same dimensions in order to prevent memory errors.


Associative arrays

Declaration

An associative array is an array of which the index is determined by a string, instead of a number. Associative arrays use round brackets '(…)' instead of the square brackets '[…]' used by normal arrays.

An associative array can use any kind of string for the index, and it can have an unlimited amount of elements. The declaration of associative arrays therefore never mentions the range. An associative array can have any amount of dimension. Note that the OPTION BASE statement has no impact.

To declare an associative array, the following syntax applies: DECLARE info ASSOC int. This declares an array containing integer values. To assign a value, using a random string “abcd” as example: info(“abcd”) = 1. Similarly an associative array containing other types can be declared, for example strings: DECLARE txt$ ASSOC STRING. An associative array cannot be declared using the LOCAL keyword.

For the index, it is also possible to use the STR$ function to convert numbers or numerical variables to strings: PRINT txt$(STR$(123)).

Relations, lookups, keys

In BaCon it is possible to setup relations between associative arrays of the same type. This may be convenient when multiple arrays with the same index need to be set at once. To setup a relation the RELATE keyword can be used, e.g.: RELATE assoc TO other. Now for each index in the array 'assoc', the same index in the array 'other' is set.

Next to this, the actual elements in an associative array can be looked up using the LOOKUP statement. This statement returns a dynamically created array containing all indexes. The size of the resulting array is dynamically declared as it depends on the amount of available elements.

To find out if a key already was defined in the associative array, the function ISKEY can be used. This function needs the array name and the string containing the index name, and will return either TRUE or FALSE, depending on whether the index is defined (TRUE) or not (FALSE).

Deleting individual associative array members can be done by using the FREE statement. This will leave the associative array insertion order intact.

Basic logic programming

With the current associative array commands it is possible to perform basic logic programming. Consider the following Logic program which can be executed with any Prolog implementation:

mortal(X) :- human(X).

human(socrates).
human(sappho).
human(august).

mortals_are:
    write('Mortals are:'),
    mortal(X),
    write(X),
    fail.

The following BaCon program does the same thing:

DECLARE human, mortal ASSOC int
RELATE human TO mortal

human("socrates") = TRUE
human("sappho") = TRUE
human("august") = TRUE

PRINT "Mortals are:"
LOOKUP mortal TO member$ SIZE amount
FOR x = 0 TO amount - 1
    PRINT member$[x]
NEXT


Records

Declaration

Records are collections of variables which belong together. A RECORD has a name by itself and members of the record can be accessed by using the <name>.<member> notation. The members should be declared using the LOCAL statement. For example:

RECORD rec
    LOCAL value
    LOCAL nr[5]
END RECORD
rec.value = 99

As soon a record is created, it also exists as a type. The name of the type always consists of the record name followed by the '_type' suffix. From then on, it is possible to declare other variables as being of the same type. To continue with the same example:

DECLARE var TYPE rec_type
var.value = 123

Arrays of records

Record definitions also can be created as static arrays or as dynamic arrays. The size of the static array is determined during compile time and the data will be stored in the stack frame of a SUB or FUNCTION. This means that the array data is lost when the SUB or FUNCTION is ended. Example of a static array definition:

RECORD data[10]
    LOCAL info$
END RECORD

To declare a dynamic array of records, the keyword ARRAY must be used. The size of a dynamic record array is determined during runtime, and therefore, can be set with variables and functions. The data is stored in the heap. The BaCon memory management will clean up the data when leaving a FUNCTION or SUB. Example:

RECORD data ARRAY 10
    LOCAL name$[5]
    LOCAL age[5]
END RECORD

Note that dynamic arrays of records do not allow members which are dynamic arrays themselves.

Passing records to functions or subs

To pass a record, simply declare the variable name with the appropriate record type in the header of the function or sub. Example code:

RECORD rec
    LOCAL nr
    LOCAL area$
END RECORD
SUB subroutine(rec_type var)
    PRINT var.nr
    PRINT var.area$
ENDSUB
rec.nr = 123
rec.area$ = "europe"
CALL subroutine(rec)

Similarly, it is possible to pass an array of records as well. Note the square brackets in the function header:

RECORD rec ARRAY 10
    LOCAL nr
    LOCAL area$
END RECORD
SUB subroutine(rec_type var[])
    PRINT var[0].nr
    PRINT var[0].area$
ENDSUB
rec[0].nr = 123
rec[0].area$ = "europe"
CALL subroutine(rec)

Returning records from functions

In order to return a record from a function, the record type must be visible to the caller. The below example declares the record in the main program. The function declares a variable of the same type and initializes the record to 0. This initialization is obligatory for string members to work properly. Then some values are assigned. Lastly, the complete record is returned to the caller:

RECORD rec
    LOCAL id
    LOCAL zip$[2]
END RECORD

FUNCTION func TYPE rec_type
    
LOCAL var = { 0 } TYPE rec_type
    var.id = 1
    var.zip$[0] = "XJ342"
    var.zip$[1] = "YP198"
    
RETURN var
ENDFUNCTION
rec = func()
PRINT rec.id
PRINT rec.zip$[0]
PRINT rec.zip$[1]


Strings by value or by reference

Strings can be stored by value or by reference. By value means that a copy of the original string is stored in a variable. This happens automatically when when a string variable name ends with the '$' symbol.

Sometimes it may be necessary to refer to a string by reference. In such a case, simply declare a variable name as STRING but omit the '$' at the end. Such a variable will point to the same memory location as the original string. The following examples should show the difference between by value and by reference.

When using string variables by value:

a$ = "I am here"
b$ = a$
a$ = "Hello world..."
PRINT a$, b$

This will print “Hello world...I am here”. The variables point to their individual memory areas so they contain different strings. Now consider the following code:

a$ = "Hello world..."
LOCAL b TYPE STRING
b = a$
a$ = "Goodbye..."
PRINT a$, b FORMAT "%s%s\n"

This will print “Goodbye...Goodbye...” because the variable 'b' points to the same memory area as 'a$'. (The optional FORMAT forces the variable 'b' to be printed as a string, otherwise BaCon assumes that the variable 'b' contains a value.)


Creating and linking to libraries created with BaCon

With Bacon, it is possible to create libraries. In the world of Unix these are known as shared objects. The following steps should explain how to create and link to BaCon libraries.

Step 1: create a library

The below program only contains a function, which accepts one argument and returns a value.

FUNCTION bla (NUMBER n)
    LOCAL i
    i = 5 * n
    RETURN i
END FUNCTION

In this example, the program will be saved as 'libdemo.bac'. Note that the name must begin with the prefix 'lib'. This is a Unix convention. The linker will search for library names starting with these three letters.

Step 2: compile the library

The program must be compiled using the '-f' flag: bacon -f libdemo.bac

This will create a file called 'libdemo.so'.

Step 3: copy library to a system path

To use the library, it must be located in a place which is known to the linker. There are several ways to achieve this. For sake of simplicity, in this example the library will be copied to a system location. It is common usage to copy additional libraries to '/usr/local/lib': sudo cp libdemo.so /usr/local/lib

Step 4: update linker cache

The linker now must become aware that there is a new library. Update the linker cache with the following command: sudo ldconfig

Step 5: demonstration program

The following program uses the function from the new library:

PROTO bla
x = 5
result = bla(x)
PRINT result

This program first declares the function 'bla' as prototype, so the BaCon parser will not choke on this external function. Then the external function is invoked and the result is printed on the screen.

Step 6: compile and link

Now the program must be compiled with reference to the library created before. This can be done as follows: ./bacon -l demo program.bac

With the Unix command 'ldd' it will be visible that the resulting binary indeed has a dependency with the new library!

When executed, the result of this program should show 25.


Creating internationalization files

It is possible to create internationalized strings for a BaCon program. In order to do so, OPTION INTERNATIONAL should be enabled in the beginning of the program. After this, make sure that each translatable string is surrounded by the INTL$ or NNTL$ function.

Now start BaCon and use the '-x' option. This will generate a template for the catalog file, provided that the 'xgettext' utility is available on your platform. The generated template by default has the same name as your BaCon program, but with a '.pot' extension.

Then proceed with the template file and fill in the needed translations, create the PO file as usual and copy the binary formatted catalog to the base directory of the catalog files (default: "/usr/share/locale").

The default textdomain and base directory can be changed with the TEXTDOMAIN statement.

Below a complete sequence of steps creating internationalization files. Make sure the GNU gettext utilities are installed.

Step 1: create program

The following simple program should be translated:

OPTION INTERNATIONAL TRUE
PRINT INTL$("Hello cruel world!")
x = 2
PRINT x FORMAT NNTL$("There is %ld green bottle", "There are %ld green bottles", x)

This program is saved as 'hello.bac'.

Step 2: compile program

Now compile the program using the '-x' option.

# bacon -x hello.bac

Next to the resulting binary, a template catalog file is created called 'hello.pot'.

Step 3: create catalog file

At the command line prompt, run the 'msginit' utility on the generated template file.

# msginit -l nl_NL -o hello.po -i hello.pot

In this example the nl_NL locale is used, which is Dutch. This will create a genuine catalog file called 'hello.po' from the template 'hello.pot'.

Step 4: add translations

Edit the catalog file 'hello.po' manually, by adding the necessary translations.

Step 5: create object file

Again at the command line prompt, run the 'msgfmt' utility to convert the catalog file to a binary machine object file. The result will have the same name but with an '.mo' extension:

# msgfmt -c -v -o hello.mo hello.po

Step 6: install

Copy the resulting binary formatted catalog file 'hello.mo' into the correct locale directory. In this example, the locale used was 'nl_NL'. Therefore, it needs to be copied to the default textdomain directory '/usr/share/locale' appended with the locale name, thus: /usr/share/locale/nl_NL. In there, the subdirectory LC_MESSAGES should contain the binary catalog file.

# cp hello.mo /usr/share/locale/nl_NL/LC_MESSAGES/

The TEXTDOMAIN statement can be used to change the default directory for the catalog files.

Step 7: setup Unix environment

Finally, the Unix environment needs to understand that the correct locale must be used. To do so, simply set the LANG environment variable to the desired locale.

# export LANG=nl_NL

After this, the BaCon program will show the translated strings.


Networking

TCP

With BaCon it is possible to create programs which have access to TCP networking. The following small demonstration shows a client program which fetches a website:

OPEN "www.basic-converter.org:80" FOR NETWORK AS mynet
SEND "GET / HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: www.basic-converter.org\r\n\r\n") TO mynet
REPEAT
    
RECEIVE dat$ FROM mynet
    total$ = total$
& dat$
UNTIL ISFALSE(WAIT(mynet, 5000))
CLOSE NETWORK mynet
PRINT total

The next program shows how to setup a TCP server which accepts multiple connections. The main program uses OPEN FOR SERVER multiple times. At each new connection the program forks itself and handles the incoming data:

PRINT "Connect from other terminals with 'telnet localhost 51000' and enter text - 'quit' ends."
WHILE TRUE
    
OPEN "localhost:51000" FOR SERVER AS mynet
    spawn =
FORK
    
IF spawn = 0 THEN
        
REPEAT
            
RECEIVE dat$ FROM mynet
            
PRINT "Found: ", dat$;
        
UNTIL LEFT$(dat$, 4) = "quit"
        
CLOSE SERVER mynet
        
END
    
ENDIF
WEND

UDP

The UDP mode can be set with the OPTION NETWORK statement. From then on a network program for UDP looks the same as a network program for TCP. This is an example client program:

OPTION NETWORK UDP
OPEN "localhost:1234" FOR NETWORK AS mynet
SEND "Hello" TO mynet
CLOSE NETWORK mynet

Example server program:

OPTION NETWORK UDP
OPEN "localhost:1234" FOR SERVER AS mynet
RECEIVE dat$ FROM mynet
CLOSE NETWORK mynet
PRINT dat$

BROADCAST

BaCon also knows how to send data in UDP broadcast mode. For example:

OPTION NETWORK BROADCAST
OPEN "192.168.1.255:12345" FOR NETWORK AS mynet
SEND "Using UDP broadcast" TO mynet
CLOSE NETWORK mynet

Example server program using UDP broadcast, listening to all interfaces:

OPTION NETWORK BROADCAST
OPEN "*:12345" FOR SERVER AS mynet
RECEIVE dat$ FROM mynet
CLOSE NETWORK mynet
PRINT dat$

MULTICAST

If UDP multicast is required then simply specify MULTICAST. Optionally, the TTL can be determined also. Here are the same examples, but using a multicast address with a TTL of 5:

OPTION NETWORK MULTICAST 5
OPEN "225.2.2.3:1234" FOR NETWORK AS mynet
SEND "This is UDP multicast" TO mynet
CLOSE NETWORK mynet

Example server program using multicast:

OPTION NETWORK MULTICAST
OPEN "225.2.2.3:1234" FOR SERVER AS mynet
RECEIVE dat$ FROM mynet
CLOSE NETWORK mynet
PRINT dat$

SCTP

BaCon also supports networking using the SCTP protocol. Optionally, a value for the amount of streams within one association can be specified.

OPTION NETWORK SCTP 5
OPEN "127.0.0.1:12380", "172.17.130.190:12380" FOR NETWORK AS mynet
SEND "Hello world" TO mynet
CLOSE NETWORK mynet

An example server program:

OPTION NETWORK SCTP 5
OPEN "127.0.0.1:12380", "172.17.130.190:12380" FOR SERVER AS mynet
RECEIVE txt$ FROM mynet
CLOSE NETWORK mynet
PRINT txt$


Ramdisks and memory streams

When creating programs which need heavy I/O towards the hard drive, it may come handy to create a ramdisk for performance reasons. Basically, a ramdisk is a storage in memory. While on Unix level administrator rights are required to create such a disk, BaCon can create an elementary ramdisk during runtime which is accessible within the program.

First, some amount of memory needs to be claimed which has to be opened in streaming mode. This returns a memory pointer which indicates the current position in memory, similar to a file pointer for files.

Then, the statements GETLINE and PUTLINE can be used to read and write lines of data towards the memory storage. For example:

memory_chunk = MEMORY(1000)
OPEN memory_chunk FOR MEMORY AS ramdisk
PUTLINE "Hello world" TO ramdisk

If the ramdisk needs to be read from the beginning, use MEMREWIND to reposition the memory pointer. In the next example, a GETLINE retrieves the line which was stored there:

MEMREWIND ramdisk
GETLINE text$ FROM ramdisk

If the option MEMSTREAM was set to TRUE, BaCon can treat the created ramdisk also as a string variable, which allows manipulations by using the standard string functions. The variable used for the memory pointer must be a string variable:

OPTION MEMSTREAM TRUE
memory_chunk = MEMORY(1000)
OPEN memory_chunk FOR MEMORY AS ramdisk$
PUTLINE "Hello world" TO ramdisk$
MEMREWIND ramdisk$
IF INSTR(ramdisk$, "world") THEN PRINT "found!
PRINT REPLACE$(ramdisk$, "Hello", "Goodbye")

Always make sure that there is enough memory to perform string changes to the ramdisk. The RESIZE statement safely can be used to enlarge the claimed memory during runtime, as this will preserve the data.

The contents of the ramdisk can be written to disk using PUTBYTE. However, it must be clear how many bytes need to be written, as the total amount of memory reserved to the ramdisk may be bigger than the actual amount of data. The function MEMTELL can be used in case the memory pointer is positioned at the end of the ramdisk:

memory_chunk = MEMORY(1000)
OPEN memory_chunk FOR MEMORY AS ramdisk
    PUTLINE "Hello world" TO ramdisk
    OPEN "ramdisk.txt" FOR WRITING AS txtfile
        PUTBYTE memory_chunk TO txtfile CHUNK MEMTELL(ramdisk)-memory_chunk
    CLOSE FILE txtfile
CLOSE MEMORY ramdisk
FREE memory_chunk

Alternatively, if the ramdisk was opened with OPTION MEMSTREAM set to TRUE, the string function LEN also will return the length of the data.


Delimited strings

A delimited string is a string which can be cut into parts, based on a character or on a set of characters. An example of such a string is a plain space delimited line in a textbook, where the words are separated by a whitespace. Another example is an ASCII file, in which the lines are separated by a newline. A very famous example of a delimited string is the Comma Separated Value (CSV) string. From another point of view, a delimited string also can be looked at as a list of items, which is the basis of LISP like languages.

The SPLIT statement can be used to split a string into elements of an array, based on a delimiter. As with all statements and functions handling delimited strings, the SPLIT statement will ignore a delimiter when it occurs between double quotes. Such delimiter is considered to be part of the string. For example:

csv$ = "This,is,a,CSV,string,\"with,an\",escaped,delimiter"
SPLIT csv$ BY "," TO member$ SIZE x

One of the resulting members of the array will contain “with,an” because the comma is enclosed within double quotes. BaCon will consider this a piece of text where the characters should be kept together. The behavior of skipping delimiters within double quotes can be changed by setting or unsetting OPTION QUOTED. The JOIN statement can be used to merge array elements back into one delimited string.

Instead of SPLIT, it is possible to use FOR..IN as well. This statement will subsequently return the parts of the delimited text into a variable. Example:

FOR i$ IN "aa bb cc"

In this example, the variable 'i$' will subsequently have the value 'aa', 'bb' and 'cc' assigned. Also the FOR statement will skip a delimiter occurring within double quotes. Note that the OPTION COLLAPSE will prevent empty results, both for SPLIT and FOR.

It is also possible to lookup a single member in a delimited string. This can be achieved with the TOKEN$ function. The following returns the nth member of a space delimited string:

PRINT TOKEN$("a b c d \"e f\" g h i j", 5)

Note that this also works when some other delimiter is required. The delimiter must then be specified in the third optional argument. All the functions handling delimited strings accept such an optional argument.

PRINT TOKEN$("1,2,3,4,5", 3, ",")

The ISTOKEN function can verify if a text occurs as a token in a delimited string:

t$ = "Kiev Amsterdam Lima Moscow Warschau Vienna Paris Madrid Bonn Bern Rome"
PRINT "Is this a token: ", ISTOKEN(t$, "Rome")

To obtain the first members from a delimited string, the function HEAD$ can be used:

PRINT "The first 2 elements: ", HEAD$(t$, 2)

Similarly, it is possible to get the last elements by using TAIL$:

PRINT "The last element: ", TAIL$(t$, 1)

It also is possible to obtain an excerpt using CUT$. The following piece of code will get the members from delimited string 't$' starting at position 2 and ending at position 4 inclusive:

PRINT "Some middle members: ", CUT$(t$, 2, 4)

Instead of fetching a member, BaCon also can change a member in a delimited string directly by using the CHANGE$ function:

result$ = CHANGE$("a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j", 5, "Ok", ",")

It is even possible to swap two members in a delimited string with the EXCHANGE$ function:

result$ = EXCHANGE$("a b c d e f g h i j", 5, 4)

The UNIQ$ function will return a delimited string where all members occur only once:

city$ = "Kiev Lima Moscow \"New York\" Warschau \"New York\" Rome"
PRINT "Unique member cities: ", UNIQ$(city$)

To add more members to a delimited string, use APPEND$:

t$ = APPEND$(t$, 2, "Santiago")

And to delete a member from a delimited string, use DEL$:

t$ = DEL$(t$, 3)

There are also functions to sort the members in a delimited string (SORT$) and to put them in reversed order (REV$). The DELIM$ function can change the actual delimiter to some other definition.

If a member still contains double quotes and escaped double quotes, then this can be flattened out by using the FLATTEN$ function. This function will remove double quotes and put escaping one level lower:

PRINT FLATTEN$("\"Hello \\\" world\"")

Lastly, the function AMOUNT will count the number of members in a delimited string:

nr = AMOUNT("a b c d e f g h i j")
PRINT AMOUNT("a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j", ",")

BaCon also has string functions available to handle delimited strings which use unbalanced delimiters. These are delimiters which consist of different characters, or different sets of characters. Examples of such strings are HTML or XML strings. They can be handled by functions like INBETWEEN$ and OUTBETWEEN$ very easily. For example, to obtain the title of a website from an HTML definition:

PRINT INBETWEEN$("<html><head><title>Website</title></head>", "<title>", "</title>")

By default, INBETWEEN$ will perform a non-greedy match, but the fourth optional argument can be set to specify a greedy match.

Similarly, the OUTBETWEEN$ function will return everything but the matched substring, effectively cutting out a substring based on unbalanced delimiters.


Error trapping, error catching and debugging

BaCon can distinguish between 4 types of errors.

  1. System errors. These relate to the environment in which BaCon runs.

  2. Syntax errors. These are detected during the conversion process.

  3. Compiler errors. These are generated by the C compiler and passed on to BaCon.

  4. Runtime errors. These can occur during execution of the program.

When an error occurs, the default behaviour of a BaCon program is to stop. Only in case of runtime errors, it is possible to intercept the error with CATCH. This allows to proceed with a self-defined error handling function. This is especially convenient when creating GUI applications, as runtime errors by default appear on the Unix command prompt. To prevent BaCon detecting runtime errors altogether, use TRAP SYSTEM.

The reserved ERROR variable contains the number of the last error occurred. A full list of error numbers can be found in appendix A. With the ERR$ function a human readable text for the error number can be retrieved programmatically.

Next to these options, the statement TRACE ON can set the program in such a way that it is executed at each keystroke, step-by-step. This way it is possible to spot the location where the problem occurs. The ESC-key will then exit the program. To switch of trace mode within a program, use TRACE OFF.

Also the STOP statement can be useful in debugging. This will interrupt the execution of the program and return to the Unix command prompt, allowing intermediate checks. By using the Unix 'fg' command, or by sending the CONT signal to the PID of the program, execution can be resumed.


Notes on transcompiling

The process of translating a programming language into another language, and then compiling it, is also known as transcompiling. BaCon is a Basic to C translator, or a transcompiler, or transpiler.

When using BaCon, three stages can be distinguished:

  1. conversion time

  2. compilation time

  3. runtime

It is important to realize that BaCon commands can function in all these stages. Examples of statements which have impact the on conversion stage are INCLUDE, RELATE, USEC, USEH, WITH and some of the OPTION arguments. These statements instruct BaCon about the way the Basic code should be converted.

A statement impacting the compilation stage is PRAGMA. With this statement it is possible to influence the behavior of the compiler.

Most other BaCon statements are effective during runtime. These form the actual program being executed.

It should be clear that the aforementioned stages cannot be mixed. For example, it is not possible to define the argument for INCLUDE in a string variable, as the INCLUDE statement is effective during conversion time, while variables are used during runtime.

Note that except for system errors, the logic of the error messages basically follows the same structure: there are syntax errors (conversion time), compiler errors and runtime errors. The system errors relate to the possibility of using BaCon itself.


Overview of BaCon statements and functions

ABS

ABS(x)

Type: function

Returns the absolute value of x. This is the value of x without sign. Example without and with ABS, where the latter always will produce a positive output:

PRINT x-y
PRINT ABS(x-y)


ACOS

ACOS(x)

Type: function

Returns the calculated arc cosine of x, where x is a value in radians.


ADDRESS

ADDRESS(x)

Type: function

Returns the memory address of a variable or function. The ADDRESS function can be used when passing pointers to imported C functions (see IMPORT).


ALARM

ALARM <sub>, <time>

Type: statement

Sets a SUB to be executed in <time> milliseconds. The value '0' will cancel an alarm. The alarm will interrupt any action the BaCon program currently is performing; an alarm always has priority.

After the sub is executed, the program will continue the operation it was doing when the alarm occurred. Example:

SUB dinner
    PRINT "Dinner time!"
END SUB
ALARM dinner, 5000


ALIAS

ALIAS <function> TO <alias>

Type: statement

Defines an alias to an existing function or an imported function. Aliases cannot be created for statements or operators. Example:

ALIAS "DEC" TO "ConvertToDecimal"
PRINT ConvertToDecimal("AB1E")


ALIGN$

ALIGN$(string$, width, type)

Type: function

Can align a multi line text over a maximum <width>. The <type> indicates the alignment: 0 = left align, 1 is right align and 2 means center alignment.

txt$ = LOAD$("book.txt")
PRINT ALIGN$(txt$, 40, 0)


AMOUNT

AMOUNT(string$ [,delimiter$])

Type: function

Returns the amount of tokens in a string split by delimiter$. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters. If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in string$ then it is ignored. Example:

PRINT AMOUNT("a b c d \"e f\" g h i j")
PRINT AMOUNT("Dog Cat@@@Mouse Bird@@@123@@@456@@@789", "@@@")


AND

<expr> AND <expr>

Type: operator

Performs a logical 'and' between two expressions. For the binary 'and', use the '&' symbol. Example:

IF x = 0 AND y = 1 THEN PRINT "Hello"


APPEND

APPEND string$ TO filename$

Type: statement

Saves a string to disk in one step. If the file already exists, the data will be appended. See BAPPEND for appending binary files in one step, and OPEN/WRITELN/READLN/CLOSE to read and write to a file using a filehandle in append mode. Example:

APPEND result$ TO "/tmp/more_data.txt"


APPEND$

APPEND$(string$ , pos, token$ [, delimiter$])

Type: function

Inserts <token$> into a delimited string$ split by delimiter$, at position <pos>. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters.

If the <pos> parameter is smaller than 1, the token$ is prepended. If the <pos> parameter is bigger than the amount of members in <string$>, then <token$> is appended.

If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in string$, then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE. See DEL$ to delete members, and also TOKEN$, CHANGE$ and EXCHANGE$ for more delimited string functions. Example:

PRINT APPEND$("Rome Amsterdam Kiev Bern Paris London", 2, "Vienna")


ARGUMENT$

ARGUMENT$

Type: variable

Reserved variable containing name of the program and the arguments to the program. These are all separated by spaces.

If the CMDLINE function is used then this variable will contain optional arguments to command line functions.


ASC

ASC(char)

Type: function

Calculates the ASCII value of char (opposite of CHR$). Example:

PRINT ASC("x")


ASIN

ASIN(x)

Type: function

Returns the calculated arcsine of x, where x is a value in radians.


ATN

ATN(x)

Type: function

Returns the calculated arctangent of x, where x is a value in radians.

PRINT ATN(RAD(90))


BAPPEND

BAPPEND data TO filename$ SIZE amount

Type: statement

Saves a memory area with binary data to disk in one step. If the file already exists, the data will be appended. See APPEND for appending text files in one step, and OPEN/PUTBYTE/GETBYTE/CLOSE to read and write to a file using a filehandle. Example:

BAPPEND mem TO "/home/me/data" SIZE 10


BASENAME$

BASENAME$(filename$ [, flag])

Type: function

Returns the filename part of a given full filename. The optional [flag] indicates the part of the filename to be returned. The values are: 0 = full filename (default), 1 = filename without extension and 2 = extension without filename. See also DIRNAME$.


BIN$

BIN$(x)

Type: function

Calculates the binary value of x and returns a string with the result. The type size depends on the setting of OPTION MEMTYPE. If MEMTYPE is set to char (default), then 8 bits are returned, if it is set to short then 16 bits are returned, etc. See also DEC to convert back to decimal.


BIT

BIT(x)

Type: function

This function returns the value for a bit on position <x>. If x = 0 then it returns 1, if x = 1 then it returns 2, if x = 2 then it returns 4 and so on.

PRINT BIT(x)


BLOAD

BLOAD(filename$)

Type: function

Performs a load into a memory address of a binary file. The memory address is returned when the loading was successful. When done with the data, the memory should be freed with the FREE statement. See LOAD$ for loading text files in one step, and OPEN/PUTBYTE/GETBYTE/CLOSE to read and write to a file using a file handle. Example:

binary = BLOAD("/home/me/myprog")
PRINT "
First two bytes are: ", PEEK(binary), " ", PEEK(binary+1)
FREE binary


BREAK

BREAK [x]

Type: statement

Breaks out loop constructs like FOR/NEXT, WHILE/WEND, REPEAT/UNTIL or DOTIMES/DONE.

The optional parameter can define to which level the break should take place in case of nested loops. This parameter should be an integer value higher than 0. See also CONTINUE to resume a loop.


BSAVE

BSAVE data TO filename$ SIZE amount

Type: statement

Saves a memory area with binary data to disk in one step. If the file already exists it is overwritten. The amount must be specified in bytes. See SAVE for saving text files in one step, and OPEN/PUTBYTE/GETBYTE/CLOSE to read and write to a file using a filehandle. Example:

BSAVE mem TO "/home/me/picture.png" SIZE 12123


CALL

CALL <sub name> [TO <var>]

Type: statement

Calls a subroutine if the sub is defined at the end of the program. With the optional TO also a function can be invoked which stores the result value in <var>.

Example:

CALL fh2celsius(72) TO celsius
PRINT celsius


CATCH

CATCH GOTO <label> | RESET

Type: statement

Sets the error function where the program should jump to if runtime error checking is enabled with TRAP. For an example, see the RESUME statement. Using the RESET argument restores the BaCon default error messages.


CEIL

CEIL(x)

Type: function

Rounds x up to the nearest integral (integer) number. This function always returns a float value. See also FLOOR and ROUND.


CHANGE$

CHANGE$(string$, position, new$ [, delimiter$])

Type: function

Changes the token in string$, which is split by delimiter$, at position with new$. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters. If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in string$ then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE.

If the indicated position is outside a valid range, the original string is returned. Use the FLATTEN$ function to flatten out the returned token. See also EXCHANGE$, TOKEN$ and SPLIT.

Examples:

PRINT CHANGE$("a b c d \"e f\" g h i j", 5, "OK")
PRINT CHANGE$("a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j", 4, "123", ",")


CHANGEDIR

CHANGEDIR <directory>

Type: statement

Changes the current working directory. Example:

CHANGEDIR "/tmp/mydir"


CHOP$

CHOP$(x$[, y$[, z]])

Type: function

Returns a string defined in x$ where on both sides <CR>, <NL>, <TAB> and <SPACE> have been removed. If other characters need to be chopped then these can be specified in the optional y$. The optional parameter z defines where the chopping must take place: 0 means on both sides, 1 means chop at the left and 2 means chop at the right. Examples:

PRINT CHOP$("bacon", "bn")
PRINT CHOP$(" hello world ", " ", 2)


CHR$

CHR$(x)

Type: function

Returns the character belonging to ASCII number x. This function does the opposite of ASC. The value for x must lie between 0 and 255.

LET a$ = CHR$(0x23)
PRINT a$


CLEAR

CLEAR

Type: statement

Clears the terminal screen. To be used with ANSI compliant terminals.


CLOSE

CLOSE FILE|DIRECTORY|NETWORK|SERVER|MEMORY|LIBRARY x[, y, z, ...]

Type: statement

Close file, directory, network, memory or library identified by handle. Multiple handles of the same type maybe used in a comma separated list. Examples:

CLOSE FILE myfile
CLOSE MEMORY mem1, mem2, block
CLOSE LIBRARY "libgtk.so"


CMDLINE

CMDLINE(options$)

Type: function

Defines the possible command line options to the current program. The CMDLINE function returns the ASCII value of each option until all provided options are parsed, in which case a '-1' is returned. In case an unknown option is encountered, question mark is returned.

If <options$> contains a colon, then an extra argument to the option is required. Such argument will appear in the reserved variable ARGUMENT$. Example where a program recognizes the options '-n' and '-f <arg>':

REPEAT
    option = CMDLINE("nf:")
    PRINT option
    PRINT ARGUMENT$
UNTIL option = -1


COLOR

COLOR <BG|FG> TO <BLACK|RED|GREEN|YELLOW|BLUE|MAGENTA|CYAN|WHITE>
COLOR <NORMAL|INTENSE|INVERSE|RESET>

Type: statement

Sets coloring for the output of characters in a terminal screen. For FG, the foreground color is set. With BG, the background color is set. This only works with ANSI compliant terminals. Example:

COLOR FG TO GREEN
PRINT "This is green!"
COLOR RESET

Instead of color names, it is also possible to use their internal enumeration: black is 0, red is 1, green is 2, and so on. For BG a 0 can be used, and for FG a 1. For example:

COLOR 1 TO 3
PRINT "This is yellow!"
COLOR RESET


COLUMNS

COLUMNS

Type: function

Returns the amount of columns in the current ANSI compliant terminal. See also ROWS. Example:

PRINT "X,Y: ", COLUMNS, "," , ROWS


CONCAT$

CONCAT$(x$, y$, …)

Type: function

Returns the concatenation of x$, y$, ... The CONCAT$ function can accept an unlimited amount of arguments. Example:

txt$ = CONCAT$("Help this is ", name$, " carrying a strange ", thing$)

The CONCAT$ function is in place for compatibility reasons. Instead, BaCon also accepts the '&' symbol as infix string concatenator. The following is the same example using '&':

txt$ = "Help this is " & name$ & " carrying a strange " & thing$


CONST

CONST <var> = <value> | <expr>

Type: statement

Assigns a value a to a label which cannot be changed during execution of the program. Consts are globally visible from the point where they are defined. Example:

CONST WinSize = 100
CONST Screen = WinSize * 10 + 5


CONTINUE

CONTINUE [x]

Type: statement

Skips the remaining body of loop constructs like FOR/NEXT, WHILE/WEND, REPEAT/UNTIL or DOTIMES/DONE.

The optional parameter can define at which level a continue should be performed in case of nested loops, and should be an integer value higher than 0.


COPY

COPY <from> TO <new> [SIZE length]

Type: statement

If <from> and <to> contain string values, then COPY copies a file to a new file. Example:

COPY "file.txt" TO "/tmp/new.txt"

If the SIZE keyword is present, then COPY assumes a memory copy. Example copying one array to another:

OPTION MEMTYPE long
DECLARE array[5], copy[5] TYPE long
array[0] = 15
array[1] = 24
array[2] = 33
array[3] = 42
array[4] = 51
COPY array TO copy SIZE 5


COS

COS(x)

Type: function

Returns the calculated COSINUS of x, where x is a value in radians. Example:

PRINT COS(RAD(45))


COUNT

COUNT(string, y)

Type: function

Returns the amount of times the ASCII value <y> occurs in <string>. Example:

PRINT COUNT("Hello world", ASC("l"))

See also FILL$.


CR$

CR$

Type: variable

Represents the Carriage Return as a string.


CURDIR$

CURDIR$

Type: function

Returns the full path of the current working directory. See also REALPATH$.


CURSOR

CURSOR <ON|OFF> | <FORWARD|BACK|UP|DOWN> [x]

Type: statement

Shows (“on”) or hides (“off”) the cursor in the current ANSI compliant terminal. Also, the cursor can be moved one position in one of the four directions. Optionally, the amount of steps to move can be specified. Example:

PRINT "I am here"
CURSOR DOWN 2
PRINT "...now I am here"


CUT$

CUT$(string$ , start, end [, delimiter$])

Type: function

Retrieves elements from a delimited string$ split by delimiter$, starting at <start> until <end> inclusive. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters.

The <start> parameter must be smaller than <end>. If not, an empty string is returned.

If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in string$, then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE. See also HEAD$ and TAIL$, and furthermore TOKEN$, CHANGE$ and EXCHANGE$ for more delimited string functions. Example:

PRINT "Excerpt: ", CUT$("Rome Amsterdam Kiev Bern Paris London", 2, 4)


DATA

DATA <x, y, z, ...>

Type: statement

Defines data. The DATA statement always contains data which is globally visible. The data can be read with the READ statement. If more data is read than available, then in case of numeric data a '0' will be retrieved, and in case of string data an empty string. To start reading from the beginning again use RESTORE. Example:

DATA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
DATA 0.5, 0.7, 11, 0.15
DATA 1, "one", 2, "two", 3, "three", 4, "four"


DAY

DAY(x)

Type: function

Returns the day of the month (1-31) where x is amount of seconds since January 1, 1970. Example:

PRINT DAY(NOW)


DEC

DEC(x [,flag])

Type: function

Calculates the decimal value of x, where x should be passed as a string. The optional flag parameter determines the base to convert from. If flag = 0 (default) then base is hexadecimal, and if flag = 1 then binary base is assumed. See also HEX$ and BIN$ for hexadecimal and binary conversions. Example:

PRINT DEC("AB1E")
PRINT DEC("00010101", 1)


DECLARE

DECLARE <var>[,var2,var3,...] TYPE|ASSOC <c-type> | [ARRAY <size>]

Type: statement

This statement is similar to the GLOBAL statement and is available for compatibility reasons.


DECR

DECR <x>[, y]

Type: statement

Decreases variable <x> with 1. Optionally, the variable <x> can be decreased with <y>. Example:

x = 10
DECR x
PRINT x
DECR x, 3
PRINT x


DEF FN

DEF FN <label> [(args)] = <value> | <expr>

Type: statement

Assigns a value or expression to a label. Examples:

DEF FN func(x) = 3 * x
PRINT func(12)

DEF FN First$(x$) = LEFT$(x$, INSTR(x$, " ")-1)
PRINT First$("One Two Three")


DEG

DEG(x)

Type: function

Returns the degree value of x radians. Example:

PRINT DEG(PI)


DEL$

DEL$(string$ , pos [, delimiter$])

Type: function

Deletes a member at position <pos> from a delimited string$ split by delimiter$. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters.

If the <pos> parameter is smaller than 1 or bigger than the amount of members in <string$>, then the original string$ is returned.

If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in string$, then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE. See APPEND$ for adding members, and furthermore TOKEN$, CHANGE$ and EXCHANGE$ for more delimited string functions. Example:

PRINT APPEND$("Rome Amsterdam Kiev Bern Paris London", 2, "Vienna")


DELETE

DELETE <FILE|DIRECTORY|RECURSIVE> <x$>

Type: statement

Deletes a file with the FILE argument, or an empty directory when using the DIRECTORY argument. The RECURSIVE argument can delete a directory containing files. It can also delete a complete directory tree. If an error occurs then this can be captured by using the CATCH statement. Example:

DELETE FILE "/tmp/data.txt"
DELETE RECURSIVE "/usr/data/stuff"


DELIM$

DELIM$(string$, old$, new$)

Type: function

Changes the delimiter in string$ from old$ to new$. The new delimiter can be of different size compared to the old delimiter.

If the old delimiter occurs between double quotes in string$, then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE. See also TOKEN$, CHANGE$ and EXCHANGE$ for more delimited string functions. Example:

PRINT "Changed delimiter: ", DELIM$("f,q,a,c,i,b,r,t,e,d,z,", ",", "@@@")


DIRNAME$

DIRNAME$(filename$)

Type: function

Returns the pathname part of a given filename. See also REALPATH$ and BASENAME$.


DOTIMES

DOTIMES x
    <body>
    [BREAK]|[CONTINUE]
DONE

Type: statement

With DOTIMES/DONE a body of statements can be repeated for a fixed amount of times without the need for a variable. This is known as an anonymous loop. As with other loops, it can be prematurely exited by using BREAK. Also, part of the body can be skipped by the use of the CONTINUE statement. See FOR/NEXT, WHILE/WEND and REPEAT/UNTIL for setting up other types of loops. Example:

DOTIMES 10
    PRINT "Hello world"
DONE


EL$

EL$

Type: variable

The Erase Line variable clears the line from the current cursor position towards the end of the line.


END

END [value]

Type: statement

Exits a program. Optionally, a value can be provided which the program can return to the shell.


ENDFILE

ENDFILE(filehandle)

Type: function

Function to check if EOF on a file opened with <handle> is reached. If the end of a file is reached, the value '1' is returned, else this function returns '0'. For an example, see the OPEN statement.


ENUM

ENUM
    item1, item2, item3
ENDENUM | END ENUM

Type: statement

Enumerates variables automatically. If no value is provided, the enumeration starts at 0 and will increase with integer numbers. Example:

ENUM
    cat, dog, fish
END ENUM

It is also possible to explicitly define a value:

ENUM
    Monday=1, Tuesday=2, Wednesday=3
END ENUM


EPRINT

EPRINT [value] | [text] | [variable] | [expression] [FORMAT <format>[TO <variable>[SIZE <size>]] | [,] | [;]

Type: statement

Same as PRINT but uses 'stderror' as output.


EQ

x EQ y

Type: operator

Verifies if x is equal to y. To improve readability it is also possible to use IS instead. Both the EQ and IS operators only can be used in case of numerical comparisons. Examples:

IF q EQ 5 THEN
    PRINT "q equals 5"
END IF

BaCon also accepts a single '=' symbol for comparison. Next to the single '=' also the double '==' can be used. These work both for numerical comparisons and for string comparisons. See also NE.

IF b$ = "Hello" THEN
    PRINT "world"
END IF


EQUAL

EQUAL(x$, y$)

Type: function

Compares two strings, and returns 1 if x$ and y$ are equal, or 0 if x$ and y$ are not equal. Use OPTION COMPARE to establish case insensitive comparison. Example:

IF EQUAL(a$, "Hello") THEN
    PRINT "world"
END IF

The EQUAL function is in place for compatibility reasons. The following code also works:

IF a$ = "Hello" THEN
    PRINT "world"
END IF


ERR$

ERR$(x)

Type: function

Returns the runtime error as a human readable string, identified by x. Example:

PRINT ERR$(ERROR)


ERROR

ERROR

Type: variable

This is a reserved variable, which contains the last error number. This variable may be reset during runtime.


EVEN

EVEN(x)

Type: function

Returns 1 if x is even, else returns 0.


EXCHANGE$

EXCHANGE$(haystack$, pos1, pos2 [, delimiter$])

Type: function

Exchanges the token at pos1 with the token at pos2 in haystack$ split by delimiter$. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters. If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in haystack$ then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE.

If one of the indicated positions is outside a valid range, the original string is returned. Use the FLATTEN$ function to flatten out the returned token. See also CHANGE$, TOKEN$ and SPLIT. Examples:

PRINT EXCHANGE$("a b c d \"e f\" g h i j", 8, 5)
PRINT EXCHANGE$("a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j", 4, 7, ",")

The next code snippet sorts a delimited string. It uses the Bubble Sort algorithm:

t$ = "Kiev Amsterdam Lima Moscow Warschau Vienna Paris Madrid Bonn Bern Rome"
total = AMOUNT(t$)
WHILE total > 1
    FOR x = 1 TO total-1
        IF TOKEN$(t$, x) > TOKEN$(t$, x+1) THEN t$ = EXCHANGE$(t$, x, x+1)
    NEXT
    DECR total
WEND


EXEC$

EXEC$(command$ [, stdin$[, out]])

Type: function

Executes an operating system command and returns the result to the BaCon program. The exit status of the executed command itself is stored in the reserved variable RETVAL. Optionally, a second argument may be used to feed to STDIN. Also optionally, a third argument can be specified to determine whether all output needs to be captured (0 = default), only stdout (1) or only stderr (2). See SYSTEM to plainly execute a system command. Example:

result$ = EXEC$("ls -l")
result$ = EXEC$("bc", "123*456" & NL$ & "quit")
PRINT EXEC$("which ps", NULL, 2)


EXIT

EXIT

Type: statement

Exits a SUB or FUNCTION prematurely. Note that functions which are supposed to return a value will return a 0. String functions will return an empty string.

Also note that it is allowed to write EXIT SUB or EXIT FUNCTION to improve code readability.


EXP

EXP(x)

Type: function

Returns e (base of natural logarithms) raised to the power of x.


EXTRACT$

EXTRACT$(x$, y$[, flag])

Type: function

Returns the string defined in <x$> from which the string mentioned in <y$> has been removed. The optional flag determines if the <y$> should be taken as a regular expression where OPTION COMPARE establishes case insensitive expression matching. See also REPLACE$.

Examples:

PRINT EXTRACT$("bacon program", "ra")
PRINT EXTRACT$(name$, "e")
PRINT EXTRACT$("a b c", " .* ", TRUE)


FALSE

FALSE

Type: variable

Represents and returns the value of '0'.


FILEEXISTS

FILEEXISTS(filename)

Type: function

Verifies if <filename> exists. If the file exists, this function returns 1, else it returns 0.


FILELEN

FILELEN(filename)

Type: function

Returns the size of a file identified by <filename>. If an error occurs this function returns '-1'. The ERR$ statement can be used to find out the error if TRAP is set to LOCAL. Example:

length = FILELEN("/etc/passwd")


FILETIME

FILETIME(filename, type)

Type: function

Returns the timestamp of a file identified by <filename>, depending on the type of timestamp indicated in <type>. The type can be one of the following: 0 = access time, 1 = modification time and 2 = status change time. Example:

stamp = FILETIME("/etc/hosts", 0)
PRINT "Last access: ", MONTH$(stamp), " ", DAY(stamp), ", ", YEAR(stamp)


FILETYPE

FILETYPE(filename)

Type: function

Returns the type of a file identified by <filename>. If an error occurs this function returns '0'. The ERR$ statement can be used find out which error if TRAP is set to LOCAL. The following values may be returned:


Value

Meaning

0

Error or undetermined

1

Regular file

2

Directory

3

Character device

4

Block device

5

Named pipe (FIFO)

6

Symbolic link

7

Socket


FILL$

FILL$(x, y)

Type: function

Returns an <x> amount of ASCII character <y>. The value for y must lie between 0 and 255. Example printing 10 times the character '@':

PRINT FILL$(10, ASC("@"))

See also COUNT to count the amount of times a character occurs in a string.


FLATTEN$

FLATTEN$(txt$ [, groupingchar$])

Type: function

Flattens out a string where the double quote symbol is used to group parts of the string together. Instead of the double quote symbol a different character can be specified (optional). See also UNFLATTEN$ for the reverse operation. Examples:

PRINT FLATTEN$("\"Hello \\\"cruel\\\" world\"")
PRINT FLATTEN$(TOKEN$("Madrid,Kiev,\"New York\",Paris", 3, ","))
PRINT FLATTEN$("\'Hello world\'", "'")


FLOOR

FLOOR(x)

Type: function

Returns the rounded down value of x. Note that this function returns a float value. Refer to CEIL for rounding up.


FOR

FOR var = x TO|DOWNTO y [STEP z]
    <body>
    [BREAK]|[CONTINUE]
NEXT [var]

FOR var$ IN source$ [STEP delimiter$]
    <body>
    [BREAK]|[CONTINUE]
NEXT [var]

Type: statement

With FOR/NEXT a body of statements can be repeated a fixed amount of times.

In the first usage the variable x will be increased (to) or decreased (downto) until y with 1, unless a STEP is specified. Example:

FOR x = 1 TO 10 STEP 0.5
    PRINT x
NEXT

In the second usage of FOR, the variable <var$> will be assigned the space delimited strings mentioned in source$. Instead of a space delimiter, some other delimiter can be specified after the STEP keyword. The delimiter can consist of multiple characters. If the <delimiter$> occurs in between double quotes, then it is skipped until FOR finds the next one. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE.

To prevent empty results, OPTION COLLAPSE can be set to TRUE (or 1). See also SPLIT to create an array of delimited strings.

Example:

OPTION COLLAPSE TRUE
FOR x$ IN "Hello cruel world"
    PRINT x$
NEXT

FOR y$ IN "1,2,\"3,4\",5" STEP ","
    PRINT y$
NEXT


FORK

FORK
<child>
[
ENDFORK [x]] | [END FORK [x]]

Type: function

Duplicate the current running program in memory. If the return value is 0, then we're in the child process. If the child process needs an explicit exit then ENDFORK can be used.

If the return value > 0, then we are in the parent process; the actual value is the process ID of the spawned child.

If the return value < 0, then an error has occurred. See also REAP to detect and cleanup child processes which have ended, or SIGNAL to prevent occurring zombie processes altogether. Example:

pid = FORK
IF pid = 0 THEN
    PRINT "I am the child, my PID is:", MYPID
    ENDFORK
ELIF pid > 0 THEN
    PRINT "I am the parent, pid of child:", pid
    REPEAT
        PRINT "Waiting for child to exit"
        SLEEP 50
    UNTIL REAP(pid)
ELSE
    PRINT "Error in fork"
ENDIF


FP

FP (x)

Type: function

Returns the memory address of a function with name 'x'. Example:

SUB Hello
    PRINT "Hello world"
END SUB

DECLARE (*func)() TYPE void
func = FP(Hello)
CALL (*func)()


FREE

FREE x[, y, z, ...]

Type: statement

Releases claimed memory (see also MEMORY). Multiple memory pointers can be provided. Example:

mem1 = MEMORY(500)
mem2 = MEMORY(100)
FREE mem1, mem2

This statement also can be used to delete individual members from associative arrays:

FREE array$("abc")

Lastly, it can delete all members of an associative array in one step:

FREE array$


FUNCTION

FUNCTION <name> ()|(STRING s, NUMBER i, FLOATING f, VAR v SIZE t) [TYPE <c-type>]
    <body>
    RETURN <x>
ENDFUNCTION | END FUNCTION

Type: statement

Defines a function. The variables within a function are visible globally, unless declared with the LOCAL statement. Instead of the Bacon types STRING, NUMBER and FLOATING for the incoming arguments, also regular C-types can be used. If no type is specified, then BaCon will recognize the argument type from the variable suffix. In case no suffix is available, plain NUMBER type is assumed. With VAR a variable amount of arguments can be defined.

A FUNCTION always returns a value or a string, this should explicitly be specified with the RETURN statement. If the FUNCTION returns a string, then the function name should end with a '$' to indicate a string by value. Function names also may end with the '#' or '%' type suffix, to force a float or integer return type.

Furthermore, it is also possible to explicitly define the type of the return value using the TYPE keyword.

Examples:

FUNCTION fh2celsius(FLOATING fahrenheit) TYPE float
    PRINT "Calculating Celsius..."
    RETURN (fahrenheit-32)*5/9
END FUNCTION

FUNCTION Hello$(STRING name$)
    RETURN "Hello " & name$ & " !"
END FUNCTION


GETBYTE

GETBYTE <memory> FROM <handle> [CHUNK x] [SIZE y]

Type: statement

Retrieves binary data into a memory area from a either a file or a device identified by handle, with optional amount of <x> bytes depending on OPTION MEMTYPE (default amount of bytes = 1). Also optionally, the actual amount retrieved can be stored in variable <y>. Use PUTBYTE to write binary data.

Example program:

OPEN prog$ FOR READING AS myfile
    bin = MEMORY(100)
    GETBYTE bin FROM myfile SIZE 100
CLOSE FILE myfile


GETENVIRON$

GETENVIRON$(var$)

Type: function

Returns the value of the environment variable 'var$'. If the environment variable does not exist, this function returns an empty string. See SETENVIRON to set an environment variable.


GETFILE

GETFILE <var> FROM <dirhandle>

Type: statement

Reads a file from an opened directory. Subsequent reads return the files in the directory. If there are no more files then an empty string is returned. Refer to the OPEN statement for an example on usage.


GETKEY

GETKEY

Type: function

Returns a key from the keyboard without waiting for <RETURN>-key. See also INPUT and WAIT. Example:

PRINT "Press <escape> to exit now..."
key = GETKEY
IF key = 27 THEN
    END
END IF


GETLINE

GETLINE <variable$> FROM <handle>

Type: statement

Reads a line of data from a memory area identified by <handle> into a string variable. The memory area can be opened in streaming mode using the the OPEN statement (see also the chapter on ramdisks and memory streams). A line of text is read until the next newline character. Example:

GETLINE text$ FROM mymemory

See also PUTLINE to store lines of text into memory areas.


GETPEER$

GETPEER$(x)

Type: function

Gets the IP address and port of the remote host connected to a handle returned by OPEN FOR SERVER. Example:

OPEN "localhost:51000" FOR SERVER AS mynet
PRINT "Peer is: ", GETPEER$(mynet)
CLOSE SERVER mynet


GETX / GETY

GETX
GETY

Type: function

Returns the current x and y position of the cursor. An ANSI compliant terminal is required. See GOTOXY to set the cursor position.


GLOBAL

GLOBAL <var>[,var2,var3,...] [TYPE]|ASSOC <c-type> | [ARRAY <size>]

Type: statement

Explicitly declares a variable to a C-type. The ASSOC keyword is used to declare associative arrays. This is always a global declaration, meaning that variables declared with the GLOBAL keyword are visible in each part of the program. Use LOCAL for local declarations.

The ARRAY keyword is used to define a dynamic array, which can be resized with REDIM at a later stage in the program.

Optionally, within a SUB or FUNCTION it is possible to use GLOBAL in combination with RECORD to define a record variable which is visible globally.

GLOBAL x TYPE float
GLOBAL q$
GLOBAL new_array TYPE float ARRAY 100
GLOBAL name$ ARRAY 25

Multiple variables of the same type can be declared at once, using a comma separated list. In case of pointer variables the asterisk should be attached to the variable name:

GLOBAL x, y, z TYPE int
GLOBAL *s, *t TYPE long


GOSUB

GOSUB <label>

Type: statement

Jumps to a label defined elsewhere in the program (see also the LABEL statement). When a RETURN is encountered, the program will return to the last invoked GOSUB and continue from there. Note that a SUB or FUNCTION also limits the scope of the GOSUB; it cannot jump outside. Example:

PRINT "Where are you?"
GOSUB there
PRINT "Finished."
END
LABEL there
    PRINT "In a submarine!"
    RETURN


GOTO

GOTO <label>

Type: statement

Jumps to a label defined elsewhere in the program. Note that a SUB or FUNCTION limits the scope of the GOTO; it cannot jump outside. See also the LABEL statement.


GOTOXY

GOTOXY x, y

Type: statement

Puts cursor to position x,y where 1,1 is the upper left of the terminal screen. An ANSI compliant terminal is required. Example:

CLEAR
FOR x = 5 TO 10
    GOTOXY x, x
    PRINT "Hello world"
NEXT
GOTOXY 1, 12


HEAD$

HEAD$(string$ , amount [, delimiter$])

Type: function

Retrieves the first <amount> elements from a delimited string$ split by delimiter$. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters.

If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in string$, then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE. See also TAIL$ to get the last elements, and furthermore TOKEN$, CHANGE$ and EXCHANGE$ for more delimited string functions. Example:

PRINT "First 2 members: ", HEAD$("Rome Amsterdam Kiev Bern Paris London", 2)


HEX$

HEX$(x)

Type: function

Calculates the hexadecimal value of x. Returns a string with the result. See also DEC to convert back to decimal.


HOST$

HOST$(name$)

Type: function

When name$ contains a hostname this function returns the corresponding IP address. If name$ contains an IP address the corresponding hostname is returned. If the name or IP address cannot be resolved an error is generated. Examples:

PRINT HOST$("www.google.com")
PRINT HOST$("127.0.0.1")


HOSTNAME$

HOSTNAME$()

Type: function

Retrieves the actual hostname of the current system where the program is running. Example:

PRINT "My hostname is: ", HOSTNAME$


HOUR

HOUR(x)

Type: function

Returns the hour (0-23) where x is the amount of seconds since January 1, 1970.


IF

IF <expression> THEN
    
<body>
[ELIF]
    <body>
[ELSE]
    [body]
ENDIF | END IF | FI

Type: statement

Execute <body> if <expression> is true. If <expression> is not true then run the optional ELSE body. Multiple IF's can be written with ELIF. The IF construction should end with ENDIF or END IF or FI. Example:

a = 0
IF a > 10 THEN
    PRINT "This is strange:"
    PRINT "a is bigger than 10"
ELSE
    PRINT "a is smaller than 10"
END IF

The IF statement also allows comparing strings. The textual order is determined by the standard ASCII table. As a result, capital letters, which occur in the ASCII table before the small letters, are considered to be 'smaller' than regular letters.

name$ = "BaCon"
IF name$ > "basic" THEN
    PRINT "Not printed"
ELSE
    PRINT "This is correct!"
END IF

If only one function or statement has to be executed, then the if-statement also can be used without a body. For example:

IF age > 18 THEN PRINT "You are an adult"
ELSE INPUT "Your age: ", age

It is not allowed to mix an IF without a body and an ELSE which contains a body, or v.v. For example, the following is not allowed:

IF year > 1969 THEN PRINT "You are younger"
ELSE
    PRINT "You are older"
ENDIF


IIF / IIF$

IIF(expression, true, false)
IIF$
(expression, true, false)

Type: function

The inline IF behaves similar to a regular IF, except that it is used as a function. The first argument contains the expression to be evaluated, the second argument will be returned when the expression is true, and the last will be returned when the expression is false.

The inline IF function also allows comparing strings. The textual order is determined by the standard ASCII table. As a result, capital letters, which occur in the ASCII table before the small letters, are considered to be 'smaller' than regular letters.

If the returned values are numeric, a plain IIF must be used. If strings are returned, then IIF$ should be used. Examples:

nr = IIF(1 <> 2, 10, 20)
answer$ = IIF$(2 + 2 = 5, "Correct", "Wrong")
PRINT IIF$(a$ = "B", "Yes it is", "No it isn't")


IMPORT

IMPORT <function[(type arg1, type arg2, ...)]> FROM <library> TYPE <type> [ALIAS word]

Type: statement

Imports a function from a C library defining the type of return value. Optionally, the type of arguments can be specified. Also optionally it is possible to define an alias under which the imported function will be known to BaCon.

When the library name is 'NULL', a function will be imported from the program itself. In such situation, the ALIAS keyword is obligatory. Note that the program must be compiled with a linker flag like '-export-dynamic' (GCC) or '-rdynamic' (TCC) to make the target function visible for IMPORT.

An imported library can also be closed afterwards by using CLOSE LIBRARY. This will unload any symbols from the current program and release the library.

Examples:

IMPORT "ioctl" FROM "libc.so" TYPE int
IMPORT "gdk_draw_line(long, long, int, int, int, int)" FROM "libgdk-x11-2.0.so" TYPE void
IMPORT "fork" FROM "libc.so" TYPE int ALIAS "FORK"
IMPORT "atan(double)" FROM "libm.so" TYPE double ALIAS "arctangens"
IMPORT "MyFunc(void)" FROM NULL TYPE int ALIAS "Othername"
CLOSE LIBRARY "libm.so"


INBETWEEN$

INBETWEEN$(haystack$, lm$, rm$ [,greedy])

Type: function

This function returns a substring from haystack$, delimited by lm$ on the left and rm$ on the right. The delimiters may contain multiple characters. They are not part of the returned result. The greedy parameter is optional and specifies if rm$ should indicate the most right match. See also OUTBETWEEN$. Example usage:

PRINT INBETWEEN$("Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet", "ipsum", "sit")
PRINT INBETWEEN$("<p>Chapter one.</p>", "<p>", "</p>")
a$ = INBETWEEN$("yes no 123 yes 456 yes", "no", "yes", TRUE)


INCLUDE

INCLUDE <filename>[, func1, func2, ...]

Type: statement

Adds a external BaCon file to current program. Includes may be nested. Optionally, it is possible to specify which particular functions in the included file need to be added. Examples:

INCLUDE "beep.bac"
INCLUDE "hug.bac", INIT, WINDOW, DISPLAY


INCR

INCR <x>[, y]

Type: statement

Increases variable <x> with 1. Optionally, the variable <x> can be increased with <y>.


INPUT

INPUT [text[, ... ,]<variable[$]>

Type: statement

Gets input from the user. If the variable ends with a '$' then the input is considered to be a string. Otherwise it will be treated as numeric. Example:

INPUT a$
PRINT "You entered the following: ", a$

The input-statement also can print text. The input variable always must be present at the end of the line. Example:

INPUT "What is your age? ", age
PRINT "You probably were born in ", YEAR(NOW) - age


INSERT$

INSERT$(source$, x, string$)

Type: function

Inserts the string$ into source$ at position <x>. The letters in source$ starting from position <x> are pushed forward. If x <= 1 then string$ is prepended to source$. If position > length of source$ then string$ is appended to source$. Example:

PRINT INSERT$("Hello world", 7, "cruel ")


INSTR

INSTR(haystack$, needle$ [,z])

Type: function

Returns the position where needle$ begins in haystack$, optionally starting at position z. If not found then this function returns the value '0'. See also TALLY to count the occurrences of needle$.

position = INSTR("Hello world", "wo")
PRINT INSTR("Don't take my wallet", "all", 10)


INSTRREV

INSTRREV(haystack$, needle$ [,z])

Type: function

Returns the position where needle$ begins in haystack$, but start searching from the end of haystack$, optionally at position z also counting from the end. The result is counted from the beginning of haystack$. If not found then this function returns the value '0'.

See also OPTION STARTPOINT to return the result counted from the end of haystack$.


INTL$

INTL$(x$)

Type: function

Specifies that <x$> should be taken into account for internationalization. All strings which are surrounded by INTL$ will be candidate for the template catalog file. This file is created when BaCon is executed with the '-x' switch. See also the chapter about internationalization and the TEXTDOMAIN statement.


ISFALSE

ISFALSE(x)

Type: function

Verifies if x is equal to 0.


ISKEY

ISKEY(array, string$)

Type: function

Returns TRUE (1) if <string$> is defined as a key in the associative <array>. If not, FALSE (0) is returned. Example:

DECLARE array ASSOC int
array("hello") = 25
array("world") = 30
PRINT ISKEY(array, "goodbye")
PRINT ISKEY(array, "world")


ISTOKEN

ISTOKEN(string$, token$ [, delimiter$])

Type: function

Verifies if the <token$> occurs in a delimited <string$>. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters.

If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in string$, then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE.

If token$ was found in string$, then this function returns the actual position of the token in the delimited string, counting from the left. Otherwise it returns '0'. See also TOKEN$. Example:

string$ = "Kiev Amsterdam Lima Moscow Warschau Vienna Paris Madrid Bonn Bern Rome"
PRINT ISTOKEN(string$, "Paris")


ISTRUE

ISTRUE(x)

Type: function

Verifies if x is not equal to 0.


JOIN

JOIN <array> BY <sub> TO <string> SIZE <variable>

Type: statement

This statement can join elements of a one dimensional string array to a single string. The <sub> argument defines with which substring the elements are connected. The result is stored in <string>. The total amount of elements to be joined must be defined in <variable>. See also SPLIT to do the opposite. Example:

DECLARE name$[3]
name$[0] = "King"
name$[1] = "of"
name$[2] = "Holland"
JOIN name$ BY " " TO result$ SIZE 3


LABEL

LABEL <label>

Type: statement

Defines a label which can be jumped to by using a GOTO, GOSUB or CATCH GOTO statement. Also RESTORE may refer to a label. A label may not contain spaces.


LCASE$

LCASE$(x$)

Type: function

Converts x$ to lowercase characters and returns the result. Example:

PRINT LCASE$("ThIs Is All LoWeRcAsE")


LEFT$

LEFT$(x$, y)

Type: function

Returns y characters from the left of x$.


LEN

LEN(x$)

Type: function

Returns the length of x$.


LET

LET <var> = <value> | <expr>

Type: statement

Assigns a value or result from an expression to a variable. The LET statement may be omitted. Example:

LET a = 10


LINENO

LINENO

Type: variable

Contains the current line number of the program. This variable mainly is used for debugging purposes.


LOAD$

LOAD$(filename$)

Type: function

Returns a string with the content of the specified text file in one step. See BLOAD for loading binary files in one step, and OPEN/WRITELN/READLN/CLOSE to read and write to a file using a filehandle. Example:

content$ = LOAD$("bacon.bac")
PRINT "Content of
'bacon.bac': ", content$


LOCAL

LOCAL <var>[,var2,var3,...] [TYPE <c-type>] [ARRAY <size>] [STATIC]

Type: statement

This statement only has sense within functions, subroutines or records. It defines a local variable <var> with C type <type> which will not be visible to other functions, subroutines or records, nor to the main program.

If the TYPE keyword is omitted then variables are assumed to be of 'long' type. If TYPE is omitted and the variablename ends with a '$' then the variable will be a string.

The ARRAY keyword is used to define a dynamic array, which can be resized with REDIM at a later stage in the program.

Example:

LOCAL tt TYPE int
LOCAL q$
LOCAL new_array TYPE float ARRAY 100
LOCAL name$ ARRAY 25

Multiple variables of the same type can be declared at once, using a comma separated list. In case of pointer variables the asterisk should be attached to the variable name:

LOCAL x, y, z TYPE int
LOCAL *s, *t TYPE long


LOG

LOG(x)

Type: function

Returns the natural logarithm of x.


LOOKUP

LOOKUP <assoc> TO <array> SIZE <variable> [STATIC]

Type: statement

Retrieves all indexnames created in an associative array. The results are stored in <array>. As it sometimes is unknown how many elements this resulting array will contain, the array should not be declared explicitly. Instead, LOOKUP will declare the result array dynamically.

If LOOKUP is being used in a function or sub, then <array> will have a local scope. Else <array> will be visible globally, and can be accessed within all functions and subs.

The total amount of elements created in this array is stored in <variable>. This variable can be declared explicitly using LOCAL or GLOBAL. Example:

LOOKUP mortal TO men$ SIZE amount
FOR x = 0 TO amount – 1
    PRINT men$[x]
NEXT

The optional STATIC keyword allows the created <array> to be returned from a function.


MAKEDIR

MAKEDIR <directory>

Type: statement

Creates an empty directory. Parent directories are created implicitly. If the directory already exists then it is recreated. Errors like write permissions, disk quota issues and so on can be captured with CATCH. Example:

MAKEDIR "/tmp/mydir/is/here"


MAP

MAP <array1> [,array2, ...array<n>] BY <function> TO <array> SIZE <const|variable> [STATIC]

Type: statement

Performs a mapping of a function towards one or more arrays, storing the results in another array. All arrays shall have one dimension. The target array can be declared previously with the DECLARE or LOCAL statement. Using LOCAL in combination with the optional STATIC keyword, the array is created so it can be returned from a function. However, if there is no explicit previous declaration, then the MAP statement will declare the target array implicitly. The STATIC keyword can be used here as well.

When the target array is declared implicitly, the following logic applies: if MAP is being used in a function or sub, then the target <array> will have a local scope. Else <array> will be visible globally, and can be accessed within all functions and subs.

The <function> can either be defined by DEF FN, or it can point to a regular function. Only the function name should be provided, not the arguments. Note that the amount of arguments must be the same as the amount of arrays to which the <function> is mapped. Example:

DEF FN multiply(x, y) = x*y
MAP array1, array2 BY multiply TO result SIZE 5

In this example, the first 5 elements of array1 and array2 are used for the 'multiply' function. The results are stored in the array 'result'.


MAX / MAX$

MAX(x, y)
MAX$
(x$, y$)

Type: function

Returns the maximum value of two numbers or two strings. In case of strings, this function will follow the ASCII table to determine the 'maximum' string. This means that small letters, which occur in the ASCII table after capital letters, will have priority. Example:

PRINT MAX(3, PI)
PRINT MAX$("hello", "HELLO")


MAXNUM

MAXNUM(type)

Type: function

This function returns the maximum value possible for a certain type. Example:

PRINT MAXNUM(short)
PRINT MAXNUM(long) FORMAT "%ld\n"


MAXRANDOM

MAXRANDOM

Type: variable

Reserved variable which contains the maximum value RND can generate. The actual value may vary on different operating systems.


MEMCHECK

MEMCHECK(memory address)

Type: function

Verifies if <memory address> is accessible, in which case a '1' is returned. If not, this function returns a '0'. Example:

IF MEMCHECK(mem) THEN POKE mem, 1234


MEMORY

MEMORY(x)

Type: function

Claims memory of x size, returning a handle to the address where the memory block resides. Use FREE to release the memory. Note that OPTION MEMTYPE can influence the type of memory created. The following example creates a memory area to store integers:

OPTION MEMTYPE int
area = MEMORY(100)

Effectively, this will provide a memory area of 100 times the length of an integer.


MEMREWIND

MEMREWIND <handle>

Type: statement

Returns to the beginning of a memory area opened with <handle>.


MEMTELL

MEMTELL(handle)

Type: function

Returns the current position in the memory area opened with <handle>.


MID$

MID$(x$, y, [z])

Type: function

Returns z characters starting at position y in x$. If y is a negative number, then start counting the position from the end of x$. The parameter 'z' is optional. When this parameter is 0, negative or omitted, then everything from position 'y' until the end of the string is returned. Example:

txt$ = "Hello cruel world"
PRINT MID$(txt$, 7, 5)
PRINT MID$(txt$, -11)
PRINT MID$(txt$, 12, -1)


MIN / MIN$

MIN(x, y)
MIN$
(x$, y$)

Type: function

Returns the minimum value of two numbers or two strings. In case of strings, this function will follow the ASCII table to determine the 'minimum' string. This means that capital letters, which occur in the ASCII table before the small letters, will have priority. Example:

PRINT MIN(3, PI)
PRINT MIN$("hello", "HELLO")


MINUTE

MINUTE(x)

Type: function

Returns the minute (0-59) where x is amount of seconds since January 1, 1970.


MOD

MOD(x, y)

Type: function

Returns the modulo of x divided by y.


MONTH

MONTH(x)

Type: function

Returns the month (1-12) in a year, where x is the amount of seconds since January 1, 1970.


MONTH$

MONTH$(x)

Type: function

Returns the month of the year as string in the system's locale ("January", "February", etc), where x is the amount of seconds since January 1, 1970.


MYPID

MYPID

Type: function

Returns the process ID of the current running program.


NE

x NE y

Type: operator

Checks if x and y are not equal. Instead, ISNOT can be used as well to improve code readability. The NE and ISNOT operators only work for numerical comparisons.

Next to these, BaCon also accepts the '!=' and '<>' constructs for comparison. These work both for numerical and string comparisons. See also EQ.


NL$

NL$

Type: variable

Represents the New Line as a string.


NNTL$

NNTL$(x$, y$, value)

Type: function

Specifies that <x$> should be taken into account for internationalization. This is a variation to INTL$. With NNTL$ singularities and multitudes can be specified, which are candidate for the template catalog file. This file is created when BaCon is executed with the '-x' switch. See also TEXTDOMAIN and INTL$ and the chapter on internationalization. Example:

LET x = 2
PRINT x FORMAT NNTL$("There is %ld green bottle\n", "There are %ld green bottles\n", x)


NOT

NOT(x)

Type: function

Returns the negation of x.


NOW

NOW

Type: function

Returns the amount of seconds since January 1, 1970.


ODD

ODD(x)

Type: Function

Returns 1 if x is odd, else returns 0.


ON

ON x GOTO label1 [,label2[, label<x>]]

Type: statement

Jump to a label based on the value of x. When x is 1 then the first label is chosen, when x is 2 the second label and so on. When x has a higher value than the available labels this statement is ignored. Example:

ON x GOTO a, b
PRINT "No label found"
END
LABEL a
    PRINT "a"
    END
LABEL b
    PRINT "b"
    END


OPEN

OPEN <file|dir|address> FOR READING|WRITING|APPENDING|READWRITE|DIRECTORY|NETWORK [FROM address[:port]]|SERVER|MEMORY|DEVICE AS <handle>

Type: statement

When used with READING, WRITING, APPENDING or READWRITE, this statement opens a file assigning a handle to it. The READING keyword opens a file for read-only, the WRITING for writing, APPENDING to append data and READWRITE opens a file both for reading and writing. Example:

OPEN "data.txt" FOR READING AS myfile
WHILE NOT(ENDFILE(myfile)) DO
    READLN txt$ FROM myfile
    IF NOT(ENDFILE(myfile)) THEN
        PRINT txt$
    ENDIF
WEND
CLOSE FILE myfile

When used with DIRECTORY a directory is opened as a stream. Subsequent reads will return the files in the directory. Example:

OPEN "." FOR DIRECTORY AS mydir
REPEAT
    GETFILE myfile$ FROM mydir
    PRINT "File found: ", myfile$
UNTIL ISFALSE(LEN(myfile$))
CLOSE DIRECTORY mydir

When used with NETWORK a network address is opened as a stream. Optionally, the source IP address and port can be specified using FROM.

OPEN "www.google.com:80" FOR NETWORK AS mynet
SEND "GET / HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: www.google.com\r\n\r\n" TO mynet
REPEAT
    RECEIVE dat$ FROM mynet
    total$ = total$ & dat$
UNTIL ISFALSE(WAIT(mynet, 500))
PRINT total$
CLOSE NETWORK mynet

When used with SERVER the program starts as a server to accept incoming network connections. When invoked multiple times in TCP mode using the same host and port, OPEN SERVER will not create a new socket, but accept another incoming connection. Instead of specifying an IP address, also the Unix wildcard '*' can be used to listen to all interfaces. See also OPTION NETWORK to set the network protocol.

OPEN "*:51000" FOR SERVER AS myserver
WHILE NOT(EQUAL(LEFT$(dat$, 4), "quit")) DO
    RECEIVE dat$ FROM myserver
    PRINT "Found: ", dat$
WEND
CLOSE SERVER myserver

When used with MEMORY a memory area can be used in streaming mode.

data = MEMORY(500)
OPEN data FOR MEMORY AS mem
PUTLINE "Hello cruel world" TO mem
MEMREWIND mem
GETLINE txt$ FROM mem
CLOSE MEMORY mem
PRINT txt$

When used with DEVICE, a file or device can be opened in any mode. The open mode can set by using OPTION DEVICE. Use PUTBYTE or GETBYTE to write and retrieve data from the opened device.

OPEN "/dev/ttyUSB0" FOR DEVICE AS myserial
SETSERIAL myserial SPEED B38400
GETBYTE mem FROM myserial CHUNK 5 SIZE received
CLOSE DEVICE myserial


OPTION

OPTION <BASE x> | <COMPARE x> | <SOCKET x> | <NETWORK type [ttl]> | <MEMSTREAM x> | <MEMTYPE type> | <COLLAPSE x> | <INTERNATIONAL x> | <STARTPOINT x> | <DEVICE x> | <PARSE x> | <FRAMEWORK x> | <VARTYPE x> | <QUOTED x>

Type: statement

Sets an option to define the behavior of the compiled BaCon program. It is recommended to use this statement in the beginning of the program, to avoid unexpected results.


OR

x OR y

Type: operator

Performs a logical or between x and y. For the binary or, use the '|' symbol.


OS$

OS$

Type: function

Function which returns the name and machine of the current Operating System.


OUTBETWEEN$

OUTBETWEEN$(haystack$, lm$, rm$ [,greedy])

Type: function

This function returns haystack$ where the substring delimited by lm$ on the left and rm$ on the right is cut out. The delimiters may contain multiple characters. They are not part of the returned result. The greedy parameter is optional and specifies if rm$ should indicate the most right match. See also INSERT$ to insert a string and INBETWEEN$ to return the delimited substring. Example usage:

PRINT OUTBETWEEN$("Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet", "ipsum", "sit")
a$ = OUTBETWEEN$("yes no 123 yes 456 yes", "no", "yes", TRUE)


PEEK

PEEK(x)

Type: function

Returns a value stored at memory address x. The type of the returned value can be determined with OPTION MEMTYPE.


PI

PI

Type: variable

Reserved variable containing the number for PI: 3.14159265358979323846.


POKE

POKE <x>, <y>

Type: statement

Stores a value <y> at memory addres <x>. Use PEEK to retrieve a value from a memory address. Use OPTION MEMTYPE to determine the type of the value to store. Example:

OPTION MEMTYPE float
mem = MEMORY(500)
POKE mem, 32.123


POW

POW(x, y)

Type: function

Raise x to the power of y.


PRAGMA

PRAGMA <OPTIONS x> | <LDFLAGS x> | <COMPILER x> | <INCLUDE x> | <BACONLIB>

Type: statement

Instead of passing commandline arguments to influence the behavior of the compiler, it is also possible to define these arguments programmatically. Mostly these arguments are used when embedding variables or library dependent structures into BaCon code. Example when SDL code is included in the BaCon program:

PRAGMA LDFLAGS SDL
PRAGMA INCLUDE SDL/SDL.h

Example when GTK2 code is included in the BaCon program:

PRAGMA LDFLAGS `pkg-config --libs gtk+-2.0`
PRAGMA INCLUDE gtk-2.0/gtk/gtk.h
PRAGMA COMPILER gcc

Example on passing optimization parameters to the compiler:

PRAGMA OPTIONS -O2 -s

Multiple arguments can be passed too:

PRAGMA LDFLAGS iup cd iupcd im
PRAGMA INCLUDE iup.h cd.h cdiup.h im.h im_image.h

Example forcing the recreation of the BaCon library:

PRAGMA BACONLIB


PRINT

PRINT [value] | [text] | [variable] | [expression] [FORMAT <format>][TO <variable> [SIZE <size>]] | [,] | [;]

Type: statement

Prints a numeric value, text, variable or result from expression to standard output. As with most BASICs, the PRINT statement may be abbreviated using the '?' symbol. A semicolon at the end of the line prevents printing a newline. For printing to stderr, see EPRINT. Examples:

PRINT "This line does ";
PRINT "end here: ";
PRINT linenr + 2

Multiple arguments maybe used but they must be separated with a comma. Examples:

PRINT "This is operating system: ", OS$
PRINT "Sum of 1 and 2 is: ", 1 + 2

The FORMAT argument is optional and can be used to specify different types in the PRINT argument. The syntax of FORMAT is similar to the printf argument in C. Example:

PRINT "My age is ", 42, " years which is ", 12 + 30 FORMAT "%s%d%s%d\n"

The result also can be printed to a string variable. This can also be done in combination with FORMAT. To achieve this, use the keyword TO. Optionally, the total amount of resulting characters can be provided with the SIZE keyword. If no size is given, BaCon will use its default internal buffer size (512 characters).

PRINT "Hello cruel world" TO hello$
PRINT "Hello" & "cruel" & "world" TO hello$ SIZE 32

t = NOW + 300
PRINT HOUR(t), MINUTE(t), SECOND(t) FORMAT "%.2ld%.2ld%.2ld" TO time$
PRINT MONTH$(t) FORMAT "%s" TO current$ SIZE 15


PROTO

PROTO <function name>[,function name [, ...]] [ALIAS word] [TYPE c-type]

Type: statement

Defines a foreign function so it is accepted by the BaCon parser. Multiple function names may be mentioned, but these should be separated by a comma. Optionally, PROTO accepts an alias which can be used instead of the original function name. Also, PROTO can define a c-type to define the type of return value for a foreign function.

During compilation the BaCon program must explicitly be linked with an external library to resolve the function name. See also OPTION PARSE to allow foreign functions unconditionally. Examples:

PROTO glClear, glClearColor, glEnable
PROTO "glutSolidTeapot" ALIAS "TeaPot"
PROTO "gtk_check_version(int,int,int)" TYPE char*


PULL

PULL x

Type: statement

Puts a value from the internal stack into variable <x>. The argument must be a variable. The stack will decrease to the next available value.

If the internal stack has reached its last value, subsequent PULL's will retrieve this last value. If no value has been pushed before, a PULL will deliver 0 for numeric values and an empty string for string values. See PUSH to push values to the stack.


PUSH

PUSH <x>|<expression>

Type: statement

Pushes a value <x> or expression to the internal stack. There is no limit to the amount of values which can be put onto the stack other than the available memory. The principle of the stack is Last In, First Out.

See also PULL to get a value from the stack.

' Initially create a new 0 value for stack
' This will only be 0 when stack wasn't declared before
PULL stack
PUSH stack
' Increase and push the stack 2x
' Stack has now 3 values
INCR stack
PUSH stack
PUSH "End"
PULL var$
' Print and pull current stack value - will return "end" 1 0
PRINT var$
PULL stack
PRINT stack
PULL stack
PRINT stack


PUTBYTE

PUTBYTE <memory> TO <handle> [CHUNK x] [SIZE y]

Type: statement

Store binary data from a memory area to either a file or a device identified by handle, with an optional amount of <x> bytes, depending on OPTION MEMTYPE (default amount of bytes = 1). Also optionally, the actual amount stored can be captured in variable <y>.

This statement is the inverse of GETBYTE, refer to this command for an example.


PUTLINE

PUTLINE "text"|<variable$> TO <handle>

Type: statement

Write a line of string data to a memory area identified by handle. The line will be terminated by a newline character. The memory area must be set in streaming mode first using OPEN (see also the chapter on ramdisks and memory streams). Example:

PUTLINE "hello world" TO mymemory

See also GETLINE to retrieve a line of text from a memory area.


RAD

RAD(x)

Type: function

Returns the radian value of x degrees. Example:

PRINT RAD(45)


RANDOM

RANDOM (x)

Type: function

This is a convenience function to generate a random integer number between 0 and x - 1. See also RND for more flexibility in creating random numbers. Example creating a random number between 1 and 100:

number = RANDOM(100) + 1


READ

READ <x1[, x2, x3, ...]>

Type: statement

Reads a value from a DATA block into variable <x>. Example:

LOCAL dat[8]
FOR i = 0 TO 7
    READ dat[i]
NEXT
DATA 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80

Also, multiple variables may be provided:

READ a, b, c, d$
DATA 10, 20, 30, "BaCon"

See RESTORE to define where to start reading the data.


READLN

READLN <var> FROM <handle>

Type: statement

Reads a line of ASCII data from a file identified by <handle> into variable <var>. See the GETBYTE statement to read binary data. Example:

READLN txt$ FROM myfile


REALPATH$

REALPATH$(filename$)

Type: function

Returns the absolute full path and name of a given filename. Symbolic links are resolved as well as relative references like '../'. See also CURDIR$.


REAP

REAP(pid)

Type: function

After a forked process has ended, it can turn into a so-called ‘zombie’ process. This function can remove such process from the process list, using the process ID as an argument. When the value -1 is used as argument, REAP will remove any zombie child process.

The return value of REAP indicates the process ID of the process which was removed from the process list successfully. If the return value is 0, then no child process has finished yet, and no process ID has been removed. When the return value is -1, an error has occurred (a common mistake is providing a wrong process ID value).

This function does not pause and returns immediately. For an example, refer to FORK.


RECEIVE

RECEIVE <var> FROM <handle> [CHUNK <chunksize>] [SIZE <amount>]

Type: statement

Reads data from a network location identified by handle into a string variable or memory area. Subsequent reads return more data until the network buffer is empty. The chunk size can be determined with the optional CHUNK keyword.

The amount of bytes actually received can be retrieved by using the optional SIZE keyword. If the amount of bytes received is 0, then the other side has closed the connection in an orderly fashion. In such a situation the network connection needs to be reopened. Example:

OPEN "www.google.com:80" FOR NETWORK AS mynet
SEND "GET / HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: www.google.com\r\n\r\n" TO mynet
REPEAT
    RECEIVE dat$ FROM mynet
    total$ = total$ & dat$
UNTIL ISFALSE(WAIT(mynet, 500))
CLOSE NETWORK mynet


RECORD

RECORD <var>[ARRAY <x>]
    LOCAL <member1> TYPE <type>
    LOCAL <member2> TYPE <type>
    ....
END RECORD

Type: statement

Defines a record <var> with members. If the record is defined in the main program, it automatically will be visible globally. If the record is defined within a function, the record will have a local scope, meaning that it is only visible within that function. To declare a global record in a function, use the DECLARE or GLOBAL keyword.

The members of a record should be defined using the LOCAL statement and can be accessed with the 'var.member' notation. See the chapter on records for more details on the usage of records. Also refer to WITH for assigning values to multiple members at the same time. Example:

RECORD var
    LOCAL x
    LOCAL y
END RECORD
var.x = 10
var.y = 20
PRINT var.x + var.y


REDIM

REDIM <var> TO <size>

Type: statement

Redimensions a one dimensional dynamic array to a new size. The contents of the array will be preserved. If the array becomes smaller then the elements at the end of the array will be cleared. The dynamic array has to be declared previously using DECLARE or LOCAL. Example:

REDIM a$ TO 20


REGEX

REGEX (txt$, expr$)

Type: function

Applies a POSIX Extended Regular Expression expr$ to the string txt$. If the expression matches, the position of the first match is returned. If not, this function returns '0'. The length of the last match is returned in the reserved variable REGLEN.

Use OPTION COMPARE to set case sensitive matching. Note that this function does not support non-greedy matching. Examples:

' Does the string match alfanum character
PRINT REGEX("Hello world", "[[:alnum:]]")

' Does the string *not* match a number
PRINT REGEX("Hello world", "[^0-9]")

' Does the string contain an a, l or z
PRINT REGEX("Hello world", "a|l|z")


REGLEN

REGLEN

Type: variable

Reserved variable containing the length of the last REGEX match.


RELATE

RELATE <assocA> TO <assocB>[, assocC, ...]

Type: statement

This statement creates a relation between associative arrays. Effectively this will result into duplication of settings; an index in array <assocA> also will be set in array <assocB>. A previous declaration of the associative arrays involved is required. Example:

DECLARE human, mortal ASSOC int
RELATE human TO mortal
human("socrates") = TRUE
PRINT mortal("socrates")


REM

REM [remark]

Type: statement

Adds a comment to your code. Any type of string may follow the REM statement. Instead of REM also the single quote symbol ' maybe used to insert comments in the code.

BaCon also accepts C-style block comments: this can be done by surrounding multiple lines using /* and */.


RENAME

RENAME <filename> TO <new filename>

Type: statement

Renames a file. If different paths are included the file is moved from one path to the other. Note that an error occurs when the target directory is on a different partition. Example:

RENAME "tmp.txt" TO "real.txt"


REPEAT

REPEAT
    <body>
    [BREAK]|[CONTINUE]
UNTIL <expr>

Type: statement

The REPEAT/UNTIL construction repeats a body of statements. The difference with WHILE/WEND is that the body will be executed at least once. The optional BREAK statement can be used to break out the loop. With CONTINUE part of the body can be skipped. Example:

REPEAT
    C = GETKEY
UNTIL C = 27


REPLACE$

REPLACE$(haystack$, needle$, replacement$ [, flag])

Type: function

Substitutes a substring <needle$> in <haystack$> with <replacement$> and returns the result. The replacement does not necessarily need to be of the same size as the substring. With the optional flag set to 1 the <needle$> should be taken as a regular expression, and OPTION COMPARE impacts case insensitive matching. With the optional flag set to 2, REPLACE$ will behave as a translate, meaning that the characters in <needle$> will be replaced by the successive characters in <replacement$>. See also EXTRACT$.

Examples:

PRINT REPLACE$("Hello world", "l", "p")
PRINT REPLACE$("Some text", "me", "123")
PRINT REPLACE$("Goodbye <all>", "<.*>", "123", TRUE)
PRINT REPLACE$("abc123def", "[[:digit:]]", "x", 1)
PRINT REPLACE$("Hello world", "old", "pme", 2)


RESIZE

RESIZE <x>, <y>

Type: statement

Resizes memory area starting at address <x> to an amount of <y> of the type determined by OPTION MEMTYPE. If the area is enlarged, the original contents of the area remain intact.


RESTORE

RESTORE [label]

Type: statement

Restores the internal DATA pointer(s) to the beginning of the first DATA statement.

Optionally, the restore statement allows a label from where the internal DATA pointer needs to be restored. See also READ. Example:

DATA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
LABEL txt
DATA "Hello", "world", "this", "is", "BaCon"
RESTORE txt
READ dat$


RESUME

RESUME

Type: function

When an error is caught, this statement tries to continue after the statement where an error occurred. Example:

TRAP LOCAL
CATCH GOTO print_err
DELETE FILE "somefile.txt"
PRINT "Resumed..."
END
LABEL print_err
    PRINT ERR$(ERROR)
    RESUME


RETURN

RETURN [value]

Type: statement

If RETURN has no argument it will return to the last invoked GOSUB. If no GOSUB was invoked previously then RETURN has no effect.

Only in case of functions the RETURN statement must contain a value. This is the value which is returned when the FUNCTION is finished.


RETVAL

RETVAL

Type: variable

Reserved variable containing the return status of the operating system commands executed by SYSTEM or EXEC$.


REV$

REV$(string$ [,delimiter$])

Type: function

Puts all elements in a delimited string split by delimiter$ in reverse order. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters.

If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in string$, then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE. See also TOKEN$, CHANGE$ and EXCHANGE$ for more delimited string functions. Example:

PRINT "Reverted members: ", REV$("Rome Amsterdam Kiev Bern Paris London")


REVERSE$

REVERSE$(x$)

Type: function

Returns the reverse of x$.


REWIND

REWIND <handle>

Type: statement

Returns to the beginning of a file opened with <handle>.


RIGHT$

RIGHT$(x$, y)

Type: function

Returns y characters from the right of x$.


RND

RND

Type: function

Returns a random number between 0 and the reserved variable MAXRANDOM. The generation of random numbers can be seeded with the statement SEED. See also the function RANDOM for a more convenient way of generating random numbers. Example:

SEED NOW
x = RND


ROL

ROL

Type: function

This function performs a binary shift to the left. The highest bit will be recycled into bit 0. The total amount of bits in a value is determined by the MEMTYPE option.

OPTION MEMTYPE short
PRINT ROL(32768)


ROR

ROR

Type: function

This function performs a binary shift to the right. The lowest bit will be recycled into the highest, depending on the setting of the MEMTYPE option.

OPTION MEMTYPE int
PRINT ROR(1)


ROUND

ROUND(x)

Type: function

Rounds x to the nearest integer number. For compatibility reasons, the keyword INT may be used instead. Note that this function always returns an integer value.

See also FLOOR to round down to the nearest the integer and MOD to get the fraction from a fractional number.


ROWS

ROWS

Type: function

Returns the amount of rows in the current ANSI compliant terminal. Use COLUMNS to get the amount of columns.


RUN

RUN <command$>

Type: statement

Executes an operating system command thereby transferring control. This effectively means that the current program is left permanently, the process ID is preserved and that this statement does not return to the BaCon program. Typically, the RUN statement is used at the end of a BaCon program. It can only execute one system command at a time.

The behavior of RUN differs from the SYSTEM statement, which can execute a set of compound commands in a shell and can query the exit status. See also EXEC$ and RUN$.

Example:

RUN "ls -l"


RUN$

RUN$(command$ [, stdin$[, out]])

Type: function

Executes an operating system command in a coprocess and returns the resulting output to the BaCon program. Because the coprocess PID is not a shell, but the PID of the executed command itself, this function cannot return a system command exit status, and can only execute one system command at a time. Optionally, a second argument may be used to feed to STDIN. Also optionally, a third argument can be specified to determine whether all output needs to be captured (0 = default), only stdout (1) or only stderr (2). See RUN and SYSTEM to plainly execute a system command. Example:

result$ = RUN$("ps x")
PRINT RUN$("rev", "This is a string", 1)
PRINT RUN$("ls -z", NULL, 2)


SAVE

SAVE string$ TO filename$

Type: statement

Saves a string to disk in one step. If the file already exists it is overwritten. See BSAVE for saving binary files in one step, and OPEN/WRITELN/READLN/CLOSE to read and write to a file using a filehandle. Example:

SAVE result$ TO "/tmp/data.txt"


SCROLL

SCROLL <UP [x]|DOWN [x]>

Type: statement

Scrolls the current ANSI compliant terminal up or down one line. Optionally, the amount of lines to scroll can be provided.


SEARCH

SEARCH(handle, string [,flag])

Type: function

Searches for <string> in file opened with <handle>. The search returns the byte offset in the file where the first occurrence of <string> is located. Use SEEK to effectively put the filepointer at this position. If the string data is not found, then the value '-1' is returned.

Optionally, a third argument can be used to determine where to start the search and in which direction the search should take place. The following values are accepted:

0: start at the beginning of the file, search forward (default)
1: start at the current position of the filepointer, search forward
2: start at the current position of the filepointer, search backward
3: start at the end of the file, search backward.

Note that when searching backwards, the actual search begins at the start position minus the length of the searched string.


SECOND

SECOND(x)

Type: function

Returns the second (0-59) where x is the amount of seconds since January 1, 1970.


SEED

SEED x

Type: statement

Seeds the random number generator with some value. After that, subsequent usages of RND and RANDOM will return numbers in a random order. Note that seeding the random number generator with the same number also will result in the same sequence of random numbers.

By default, a BaCon program will automatically seed the random number generator as soon as it is executed, so it may not be needed to use this function explicitly. Example:

SEED NOW


SEEK

SEEK <handle> OFFSET <offset> [WHENCE START|CURRENT|END]

Type: statement

Puts the filepointer to new position at <offset>, optionally starting from <whence>.


SELECT

SELECT <variable> CASE <body>[;] [DEFAULT <body>] END SELECT

Type: statement

With this statement a variable can be examined on multiple values. Optionally, if none of the values match the SELECT statement may fall back to the DEFAULT clause. Example:

SELECT myvar
    CASE 1
        PRINT "Value is 1"
    CASE 5
        PRINT "Value is 5"
    CASE 2*3
        PRINT "Value is ", 2*3
    DEFAULT
        PRINT "Value not found"
END SELECT

Contrary to most implementations, in BaCon the CASE keyword also may refer to expressions and variables. Also BaCon knows how to 'fall through' using a semicolon, in case multiple values lead to the same result:

SELECT st$
    CASE "Man"
        PRINT "It's male"
    CASE "Woman"
        PRINT "It's female"
    CASE "Child";
    CASE "Animal"
        PRINT "It's it"
    DEFAULT
        PRINT "Alien detected"
END SELECT


SEND

SEND <var> TO <handle> [CHUNK <chunk>] [SIZE <size>]

Type: statement

Sends data in <var> to a network location identified by <handle>. Optionally, the amount of bytes to send can be specified with the CHUNK keyword. As by default SEND will consider the <var> to be a string, the default amount of data is the string length of <var>. However, instead of a string, also binary data can be sent by using a memory area created by the MEMORY function. In such a situation it is obligatory to also specify the chunk size.

The amount of bytes actually sent can be retrieved by using the optional SIZE keyword. For an example of SEND, see the RECEIVE statement.


SETENVIRON

SETENVIRON var$, value$

Type: statement

Sets the environment variable 'var$' to 'value$'. If the environment variable already exists, this statement will overwrite a previous value. See GETENVIRON$ to retrieve the value of an environment variable. Example:

SETENVIRON "LANG", "C"


SETSERIAL

SETSERIAL <device> IMODE|OMODE|CMODE|LMODE|SPEED|OTHER <value>

Type: statement

This statement can set the properties of a serial device. The Input Mode (IMODE), Output Mode (OMODE), Control Mode (CMODE) and Local Mode (LMODE) can be set, as well as the speed and the special properties on the serial device. A discussion on the details of all these options is outside the scope of this manual. Please refer to the TermIOS documentation of your C compiler instead.

Example usage opening a serial port in 8N1, ignoring 0-byte as a break, canonical, and non-blocking with a timeout of 0.5 seconds:

OPEN "/dev/ttyUSB0" FOR DEVICE AS myserial
SETSERIAL myserial SPEED B9600
SETSERIAL myserial IMODE ~IGNBRK
SETSERIAL myserial CMODE ~CSIZE
SETSERIAL myserial CMODE CS8
SETSERIAL myserial CMODE ~PARENB
SETSERIAL myserial CMODE ~CSTOPB
SETSERIAL myserial LMODE ICANON
SETSERIAL myserial OTHER VMIN = 0
SETSERIAL myserial OTHER VTIME = 5


SGN

SGN(x)

Type: function

Returns the sign of x. If x is a negative value, this function returns -1. If x is a positive value, this function returns 1. If x is 0 then a 0 is returned.


SIGNAL

SIGNAL <sub>, <signal>

Type: statement

This statement connects a callback function to a Unix signal. Plain POSIX signal names can be used, for example SIGINT, SIGTERM, SIGCHLD and so on. Next to that, this statement accepts the SIG_DFL (default action) and SIG_IGN (ignore signal) symbols for a callback also.

Example to ignore the SIGCHLD signal, preventing zombie processes to occur:

SIGNAL SIG_IGN, SIGCHLD

Example connecting the <CTRL>+<C> signal to a SUB:

SUB Cleanup                    : ' Signal callback function
    SIGNAL SIG_DFL, SIGINT     : ' Restore CTRL+C
    PRINT "Cleaning up"        : ' Do your cleanup here
    STOP SIGINT                : ' Send the SIGINT to myself
ENDSUB
SIGNAL Cleanup, SIGINT         : ' Catch CTRL+C
PRINT "Waiting…"
key = GETKEY


SIN

SIN(x)

Type: function

Returns the calculated SINUS of x, where x is a value in radians.


SIZEOF

SIZEOF(type)

Type: function

Returns the bytesize of a C type.


SLEEP

SLEEP <x>

Type: statement

Sleeps <x> milliseconds (sleep 1000 is 1 second).


SORT

SORT <x> [SIZE <x>] [DOWN]

Type: statement

Sorts the one-dimensional array <x> in ascending order. Only the basename of the array should be mentioned, not the dimension. The array may be a numeric, string or associative array. The amount of elements involved can be specified with SIZE. This keyword is optional for static arrays, but should always be used in case of dynamic arrays. It has no meaning with associative arrays. Also optionally, the keyword DOWN can be used to sort in descending order. Example:

GLOBAL a$[5] TYPE STRING
a$[0] = "Hello"
a$[1] = "my"
a$[2] = "good"
a$[4] = "friend"
SORT a$


SORT$

SORT$(string$ [,delimiter$])

Type: function

Sorts all elements in a delimited string split by delimiter$. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters.

If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in string$, then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE. See also TOKEN$, CHANGE$ and EXCHANGE$ for more delimited string functions. Example:

PRINT "Sorted members: ", SORT$("f,q,a,c,i,b,r,t,e,d,z,", ",")


SOURCE$

SOURCE$

Type: variable

Reserved variable which contains the BaCon source code of the current running program. Note that for commercial programs this variable should not be used, because it stores the source code as plain text in the resulting binary..


SPC$

SPC$(x)

Type: function

Returns an x amount of spaces.


SPLIT

SPLIT <string$> BY <substr$>|<nr> TO <array$> SIZE <variable> [STATIC]

Type: statement

This statement can split a string into smaller pieces. The <substr$> argument determines where the string is being split. The results are stored in <array$>. As sometimes it cannot be known in advance how many elements this resulting array will contain, the array may not be declared before with LOCAL or GLOBAL.

If SPLIT is being used in a function or sub, then <array$> will have a local scope. Else <array$> will be visible globally, and can be accessed within all functions and subs.

The total amount of elements created in this array is stored in <variable>. This variable can be declared explicitly using LOCAL or GLOBAL.

If the <substr$> occurs in between double quotes, then it is skipped. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE. If a double quote needs to be present in the <string$>, it must be escaped properly.

If the value for BY is numeric, then string$ will be cut in pieces each containing <nr> characters.

Example usage:

OPTION BASE 1
LOCAL dimension
SPLIT "one,two,,three" BY "," TO array$ SIZE dimension
FOR i = 1 TO dimension
    PRINT array$[i]
NEXT

The above example will return four elements, of which the third element is empty. If OPTION COLLAPSE is put to 1, the above example will return three elements, ignoring empty entries.

SPLIT "one,two,\"three,four\",five" BY "," TO array$ SIZE dim

This will return 4 elements, because one separator (the comma) lies in between double quotes.

The optional STATIC keyword allows the created <array> to be returned from a function. See also TOKEN$ to retrieve one single element from a string, and JOIN to join elements into a string.


SQR

SQR(x)

Type: function

Calculates the square root from a number.


STOP

STOP [signal]

Type: statement

Halts the current program and returns to the Unix prompt. The program can be resumed by performing the Unix command 'fg', or by sending the CONT signal to its pid: kill -CONT <pid>.

The STOP statement actually sends the 'STOP' signal to the current program. Optionally, a different signal can be defined. The signal can be a number or a predefined name from libc, like SIGQUIT, SIGKILL, SIGTERM and so on. Example sending the <CTRL>+<C> signal:

STOP SIGINT


STR$

STR$(x)

Type: function

Convert numeric value x to a string (opposite of VAL). Example:

PRINT STR$(123)


SUB

SUB <name>[(STRING s, NUMBER i, FLOATING f, VAR v SIZE t)]
    <body>
ENDSUB | END SUB

Type: statement

Defines a subprocedure. A subprocedure never returns a value (use FUNCTION instead).

Variables used in a sub are visible globally, unless declared with LOCAL. The incoming arguments are always local. Instead of the BaCon types STRING, NUMBER and FLOATING for the incoming arguments, also regular C-types also can be used. If no type is specified, then BaCon will recognize the argument type from the variable suffix. In case no suffix is available, plain NUMBER type is assumed. With VAR a variable amount of arguments can be defined. Example:

SUB add(NUMBER x, NUMBER y)
    LOCAL result
    PRINT "The sum of x and y is: ";
    result = x + y
    PRINT result
END SUB


SWAP

SWAP x, y

Type: statement

Swaps the contents of the variables x and y.


SYSTEM

SYSTEM <command$>

Type: statement

Executes an operating system command. It causes the BaCon program to hold until the command has been completed. The exit status of the executed command itself is stored in the reserved variable RETVAL. Use EXEC$ to catch the result of an operating system command. Example:

SYSTEM "ls -l"


TAB$

TAB$(x)

Type: function

Returns an x amount of tabs.


TAIL$

TAIL$(string$ , amount [, delimiter$])

Type: function

Retrieves the last <amount> elements from a delimited string$ split by delimiter$. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters.

If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in string$, then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE. See also HEAD$ to get the first elements, and furthermore TOKEN$, CHANGE$ and EXCHANGE$ for more delimited string functions. Example:

PRINT "Last 2 members: ", TAIL$("Rome Amsterdam Kiev Bern Paris London", 2)


TALLY

TALLY(haystack$, needle$ [,z])

Type: function

Returns the amount of times needle$ occurs in haystack$, optionally starting at position z. If the needle$ is not found, then this function returns the value '0'. See INSTR to find the position of a string. Example:

amount = TALLY("Hello world are we all happy?", "ll")
PRINT TALLY("Don't take my ticket", "t", 10)


TAN

TAN(x)

Type: function

Returns the calculated tangent of x, where x is a value in radians.


TELL

TELL(handle)

Type: function

Returns current position in file opened with <handle>.


TEXTDOMAIN

TEXTDOMAIN <domain$>, <directory$>

Type: statement

When OPTION INTERNATIONAL is enabled, BaCon by default configures a textdomain with the current filename and a base directory "/usr/share/locale" for the message catalogs. With this statement it is possible to explicitly specify a different textdomain and base directory.


TIMER

TIMER

Type: function

Keeps track of the amount of milliseconds the current program is running. Example:

iter = 1
WHILE iter > 0 DO
    IF TIMER = 1 THEN BREAK
    INCR iter
WEND
PRINT "Got ", iter-1, " iterations in 1 millisecond!"


TIMEVALUE

TIMEVALUE(a,b,c,d,e,f)

Type: function

Returns the amount of seconds since January 1 1970, from year (a), month (b), day (c), hour (d), minute (e), and seconds (f). Example:

PRINT TIMEVALUE(2009, 11, 29, 12, 0, 0)


TOKEN$

TOKEN$(haystack$, n [, delimiter$])

Type: function

Returns the nth token in haystack$ split by delimiter$. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters.

If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in haystack$, then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE.

If the indicated position is outside a valid range, the result will be an empty string. Use the FLATTEN$ function to flatten out the returned token. See also ISTOKEN, AMOUNT and SPLIT.

Examples:

PRINT TOKEN$("a b c d \"e f\" g h i j", 6)
PRINT TOKEN$("Dog Cat @@@ Mouse Bird@@@ 123@@@", 3, "@@@")
PRINT TOKEN$("1,2,3,4,5", 3, ",")
PRINT TOKEN$("1,2," & CHR$(34) & "3,4" & CHR$(34) & ",5,", 6, ",")


TRACE

TRACE <ON|MONITOR <var1, var2, ...>|OFF>

Type: statement

The ON keyword starts trace mode. The program will wait for a key to continue. After each keypress, the next line of source code is displayed on the screen, and then executed. Pressing the ESCAPE key will exit the program.

The MONITOR keyword also starts trace mode, but allows monitoring values of variables. After each line of source code the content of the specified variables is displayed. Example:

LOCAL var
TRACE MONITOR var
FOR var = 1 TO 10
    INCR var
NEXT


TRAP

TRAP <LOCAL|SYSTEM>

Type: statement

Sets the runtime error trapping. By default, BaCon performs error trapping (LOCAL). BaCon tries to examine statements and functions where possible, and will display an error message based on the operating system internals, indicating which statement or function causes a problem. Optionally, when a CATCH is set, BaCon can jump to a LABEL instead, where a self-defined error function can be executed, and from where a RESUME is possible.

When set to SYSTEM, error trapping is performed by the operating system. This means that if an error occurs, a signal will be caught by the program and a generic error message is displayed on the prompt. The program will then exit gracefully

The setting LOCAL decreases the performance of the program, because additional runtime checks are carried out when the program is executed.


TRUE

TRUE

Type: variable

Represents and returns the value of '1'. This is the opposite of the FALSE variable.


TYPEOF$

TYPEOF$(x)

Type: function

Returns the type of a variable.


UCASE$

UCASE$(x$)

Type: function

Converts x$ to uppercase characters and returns the result. See LCASE$ to do the opposite.


UNFLATTEN$

UNFLATTEN$(txt$ [, groupingchar$])

Type: function

Unflattens a string where the double quote symbol is used to group parts of the string together. The string will be surrounded with double quotes and any existing escapes will be escaped. Instead of the double quote symbol a different character can be specified (optional). See also FLATTEN$ for the reverse operation. Examples:

PRINT UNFLATTEN$("\"Hello \\\"cruel\\\" world\"")
PRINT UNFLATTEN$("\'Hello world\'", "'")


UNIQ$

UNIQ$(string$ [,delimiter$])

Type: function

Unifies all elements in a delimited string split by delimiter$. The delimiter$ is optional. If it is omitted, then a single space character is assumed. When specified, it may consist of multiple characters.

If delimiter$ occurs between double quotes in string$, then it is ignored. This behavior can be changed by setting OPTION QUOTED to FALSE. See also TOKEN$, CHANGE$ and EXCHANGE$ for more delimited string functions. Example:

PRINT "A sequence with unique members: ", UNIQ$("a a b c c d e f a c f")


USEC

USEC
    <body>
ENDUSEC | END USEC

Type: statement

Defines a body with C code. This code is put unmodified into the generated C source file. Example:

USEC
    char *str;
    str = strdup("Hello");
    printf("%s\n", str);
END USEC


USEH

USEH
    <body>
ENDUSEH | END USEH

Type: statement

Defines a body with C declarations and/or definitions. This code is put unmodified into the generated global header source file. This can particularly be useful in case of using variables from external libraries. See also USEC to pass C source code. Example:

USEH
    char *str;
    extern int pbl_errno;
END USEH


VAL

VAL(x$)

Type: function

Returns the actual value of x$. This is the opposite of STR$. Example:

nr$ = "456"
q = VAL(nr$)


VAR

VAR <array$> SIZE <x>

Type: statement

Declares a variable argument list in a FUNCTION or SUB. There may not be other variable declarations in the function header. The arguments to the function are put into an array of strings, and the resulting amount of elements is stored in <x>. Example:

OPTION BASE 1
SUB demo (VAR arg$ SIZE amount)
    LOCAL x
    PRINT "Amount of incoming arguments: ", amount
    FOR x = 1 TO amount
        PRINT arg$[x]
    NEXT
END SUB

' No argument
demo(0)
' One argument
demo("abc")
' Three arguments
demo("123", "456", "789")


VERSION$

VERSION$

Type: variable

Reserved variable which contains the BaCon version text.


WAIT

WAIT(handle, milliseconds)

Type: function

Suspends the program for a maximum of <milliseconds> until data becomes available on <handle>.

This is especially useful in network programs where a RECEIVE will block if there is no data available. The WAIT function checks the handle and if there is data in the queue, it returns with value '1'. If there is no data then it waits for at most <milliseconds> before it returns. If there is no data available, WAIT returns '0'. Refer to the RECEIVE statement for an example.

This statement also can be used to find out if a key is pressed without actually waiting for a key, so without interrupting the current program. In this case, use the STDIN filedescriptor (0) as the handle. Example:

REPEAT
    PRINT "Press Escape... waiting..."
    key = WAIT(STDIN_FILENO, 50)
UNTIL key = 27

As can be observed in this code, instead of '0' the reserved POSIX variable STDIN_FILENO can be used also. See also appendix B for more standard POSIX variables.


WEEK

WEEK(x)

Type: function

Returns the week number (1-53) in a year, where x is the amount of seconds since January 1, 1970. Example:

PRINT WEEK(NOW)


WEEKDAY$

WEEKDAY$(x)

Type: function

Returns the day of the week as a string in the system's locale ("Monday", "Tuesday", etc), where x is the amount of seconds since January 1, 1970.


WHILE

WHILE <expr> [DO]
    <body>
    [BREAK]|[CONTINUE]
WEND

Type: statement

The WHILE/WEND is used to repeat a body of statements and functions. The DO keyword is optional. The optional BREAK statement can be used to break out the loop. With the optional CONTINUE part of the body can be skipped. Example:

LET a = 5
WHILE a > 0 DO
    PRINT a
    a = a - 1
WEND


WITH

WITH <var>
    .<var> = <value>
    .<var> = <value>
    ....
END WITH

Type: statement

Assign values to individual members of a RECORD. For example:

WITH myrecord
    .name$ = "Peter"
    .age = 41
    .street = Falkwood Area 1
    .city = The Hague
END WITH


WRITELN

WRITELN "text"|<var> TO <handle>

Type: statement

Write a line of ASCII data to a file identified by handle. A semicolon at the end of the line prevents writing a newline. Refer to the PUTBYTE statement to write binary data. Examples:

WRITELN "Hello world with a newline" TO myfile
WRITELN "Without newline"; TO myfile


YEAR

YEAR(x)

Type: function

Returns the year where x is amount of seconds since January 1, 1970. Example:

PRINT YEAR(NOW)


Appendix A: Runtime error codes

Code

Meaning

0

Success

1

Trying to access illegal memory

2

Error opening file

3

Could not open library

4

Symbol not found in library

5

Wrong hexvalue

6

Unable to claim memory

7

Unable to delete file

8

Could not open directory

9

Unable to rename file

10

NETWORK argument should contain colon with port number

11

Could not resolve hostname

12

Socket error

13

Unable to open address

14

Error reading from socket

15

Error sending to socket

16

Error checking socket

17

Unable to bind the specified socket address

18

Unable to listen to socket address

19

Cannot accept incoming connection

20

Unable to remove directory

21

Unable to create directory

22

Unable to change to directory

23

GETENVIRON argument does not exist as environment variable

24

Unable to stat file

25

Search contains illegal string

26

Cannot return OS name

27

Illegal regex expression

28

Unable to create bidirectional pipes

29

Unable to fork process

30

Cannot read from pipe

31

Gosub nesting too deep

32

Could not open device

33

Error configuring serial port

34

Error accessing device

35

Error in INPUT

36

Illegal value in SORT dimension

37

Illegal option for SEARCH



Appendix B: standard POSIX variables

Variable

Value

EXIT_SUCCESS

0

EXIT_FAILURE

1

STDIN_FILENO

0

STDOUT_FILENO

1

STDERR_FILENO

2

RAND_MAX

System dependent



Appendix C: reserved keywords and functions

All keywords belonging to the C language cannot be redefined in a BaCon program:

auto, break, case, char, const, continue, default, do, double, else, enum, extern, float, for, goto, if, int, long, register, return, short, signed, sizeof, static, struct, switch, typedef, union, unsigned, void, volatile, while.

Functions defined in libc, libm or libdl cannot be redefined in a BaCon program, most notorious being:

exit, index, y0, y0f, y0l, y1, y1f, y1l, yn, ynf, ynl, dlopen, dlsym, dlclose.

All symbols mentioned in the paragraph “Reserved Names” of any C manual cannot be redefined.




This documentation © by Peter van Eerten.
Please report errors to: REVERSE$("gro.retrevnoc-cisab@retep")

Created with LibreOffice 5.1.4.2

Back to top of document